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Open AccessArticle

Levels and Determinants of Fine Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide in Kitchens Using Biomass and Non-Biomass Fuel for Cooking

1
Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, PO Box 3500, Karachi 74800, Pakistan
2
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041287
Received: 4 January 2020 / Revised: 6 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 17 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Public Health and Epidemiology)
To assist interpretation of a study in rural Pakistan on the use of biomass for cooking and the risk of coronary heart disease, we continuously monitored airborne concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) for up to 48 h in the kitchens of households randomly selected from the parent study. Satisfactory data on PM2.5 and CO respectively were obtained for 16 and 17 households using biomass, and 19 and 17 using natural gas. Linear regression analysis indicated that in comparison with kitchens using natural gas, daily average PM2.5 concentrations were substantially higher in kitchens that used biomass in either a chimney stove (mean difference 611, 95% CI: 359, 863 µg/m3) or traditional three-stone stove (mean difference 389, 95% CI: 231, 548 µg/m3). Daily average concentrations of CO were significantly increased when biomass was used in a traditional stove (mean difference from natural gas 3.7, 95% CI: 0.8, 6.7 ppm), but not when it was used in a chimney stove (mean difference −0.8, 95% CI: −4.8, 3.2 ppm). Any impact of smoking by household members was smaller than that of using biomass, and not clearly discernible. In the population studied, cooking with biomass as compared with natural gas should serve as a good proxy for higher personal exposure to PM2.5. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomass; natural gas; particulate matter; carbon monoxide; kitchen; monitoring biomass; natural gas; particulate matter; carbon monoxide; kitchen; monitoring
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Fatmi, Z.; Ntani, G.; Coggon, D. Levels and Determinants of Fine Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide in Kitchens Using Biomass and Non-Biomass Fuel for Cooking. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1287.

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