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Open AccessArticle

Childhood Trauma Is Associated with the Spirituality of Non-Religious Respondents

Olomouc University Social Health Institute, Palacky University Olomouc, 771 11 Olomouc, Czech Republic
Department of Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
Graduate School Kosice Institute for Society and Health, P.J. Safarik University in Kosice, 040 11 Kosice, Slovak Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1268;
Received: 16 January 2020 / Revised: 11 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 17 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Abuse, Mental Health and Resilience)
Childhood trauma experience (CT) is negatively associated with many aspects of adult life. Religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are often studied as positive coping strategies and could help in the therapeutic process. Evidence on this is lacking for a non-religious environment. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of different types of CT with R/S in the secular conditions of the Czech Republic. A nationally representative sample (n = 1800, mean age = 46.4, SD = 17.4; 48.7% male) of adults participated in the survey. We measured childhood trauma, spirituality, religiosity and conversion experience. We found that four kinds of CT were associated with increased levels of spirituality, with odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.34) to 1.31 (1.18–1.46). Non-religious respondents were more likely to report associations of CT with spirituality. After measuring for different combinations of R/S, each CT was associated with increased chances of being “spiritual but non-religious”, with OR from 1.55 (1.17–2.06) to 2.10 (1.63–2.70). Moreover, converts were more likely to report emotional abuse OR = 1.46 (1.17–1.82) or emotional neglect with OR = 1.42 (1.11–1.82). Our findings show CT is associated with higher levels of spirituality in non-religious respondents. Addressing spiritual needs may contribute to the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic treatment of the victims. View Full-Text
Keywords: childhood trauma; abuse; neglect; spirituality; religiosity; conversion childhood trauma; abuse; neglect; spirituality; religiosity; conversion
MDPI and ACS Style

Kosarkova, A.; Malinakova, K.; Koncalova, Z.; Tavel, P.; van Dijk, J.P. Childhood Trauma Is Associated with the Spirituality of Non-Religious Respondents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1268.

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