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Viral Pandemics of the Last Four Decades: Pathophysiology, Health Impacts and Perspectives

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Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar 788011, India
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, MAHSA University, SP2, Bandar Saujana Putra, Jenjarom, Selangor 42610, Malaysia
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Department of Oral Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, MAHSA University, SP2, Bandar Saujana Putra, Jenjarom, Selangor 42610, Malaysia
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Department of Microbiology, R. G. Kar Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata 700004, India
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Health Centre, Assam University, Silchar 788011, India
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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar 788014, India
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Department of Pathology, Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar 788014, India
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Department of Animal Morphology, Physiology and Genetics, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249411
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 11 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 15 December 2020
The last four decades has witnessed some of the deadliest viral pandemics with far-reaching consequences. These include the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (1981), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (2002), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) (2009), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012), Ebola virus (2013) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (2019-present). Age- and gender-based characterizations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 resembles SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV with regard to higher fatality rates in males, and in the older population with comorbidities. The invasion-mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, involves binding of its spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors; MERS-CoV utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), whereas H1N1 influenza is equipped with hemagglutinin protein. The viral infections-mediated immunomodulation, and progressive inflammatory state may affect the functions of several other organs. Although no effective commercial vaccine is available for any of the viruses, those against SARS-CoV-2 are being developed at an unprecedented speed. Until now, only Pfizer/BioNTech’s vaccine has received temporary authorization from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Given the frequent emergence of viral pandemics in the 21st century, proper understanding of their characteristics and modes of action are essential to address the immediate and long-term health consequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; Ebola; HIV; influenza; SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19; Ebola; HIV; influenza; SARS-CoV-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roychoudhury, S.; Das, A.; Sengupta, P.; Dutta, S.; Roychoudhury, S.; Choudhury, A.P.; Ahmed, A.B.F.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Slama, P. Viral Pandemics of the Last Four Decades: Pathophysiology, Health Impacts and Perspectives. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9411. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249411

AMA Style

Roychoudhury S, Das A, Sengupta P, Dutta S, Roychoudhury S, Choudhury AP, Ahmed ABF, Bhattacharjee S, Slama P. Viral Pandemics of the Last Four Decades: Pathophysiology, Health Impacts and Perspectives. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(24):9411. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249411

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Das, Anandan; Sengupta, Pallav; Dutta, Sulagna; Roychoudhury, Shatabhisha; Choudhury, Arun P.; Ahmed, A. B.F.; Bhattacharjee, Saumendra; Slama, Petr. 2020. "Viral Pandemics of the Last Four Decades: Pathophysiology, Health Impacts and Perspectives" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 24: 9411. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249411

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