Since the end of the 20th century, different approaches related to sustainability have been developed, such as sustainable development, ecological growth, blue economy and green economy, but all of them are built upon a linear production–consumption model, based on the growth and scarcity of resources together with climate change and environmental degradation.
The circular economy (CE) agrees with these approaches focusing on the relationship of human beings with their environment but differs in that it is more radical. In fact, it requires a much wider and complete design of solutions throughout the life cycle of the product as it is based on the creation of value through the Restoration, Regeneration and Reuse of resources [1
]. The aim is to implement a new economy, based on circular production systems, generating new business models and forms of consumption that move away from property and that imply the existence of active users and passive nonconsumers. Hence, a radical change in the actual linear production models is needed to implement CE, and it also entails a radical change in the way companies, citizens and legislators behave.
However, the CE literature mainly focuses on the manufacturing sector with limited references to tourism despite the tourism sector being characterised by huge energy and water consumptions, organic and plastic waste, traffic congestion and carbon dioxide emissions and air pollution.
Coastal regions and especially island destinations such as the Canary Islands rely on the coastline for the development of their economy and tourism industry, and the life quality of these regions [2
]. Tourism represents 35.2% of GDP, 40.2% of employment and accounts for 35.3% of tax collection in the Canary Islands [3
]; however, tourism growth and development in the Canaries have altered the state of the coastal environment and have generated negative externalities on the environment such as seawater degradation, deterioration of fauna and flora, CO2
emissions and pollution, erosion and destruction of ecosystems or the depletion of natural resources, and have generated an excessive coastal urbanisation with associated problems such as the visual impact [4
]. In fact, the Canary Islands lead together with the Balearic Islands, another well-known mass tourism destination, the ranking of autonomous communities with the highest waste per capita generation indicator. Hence, the Canary Islands, due to its archipelago status, is a very vulnerable destination with very limited resources. One of the most serious problems associated with the development of tourist activity in the Canary Islands is, on the one hand, the consumption of high levels of resources and, on the other, the generation of waste.
The implementation of CE models and solutions is especially important at island destinations such as the Canary Islands where an adequate and sustainable management of resources seems to be a key element in current and future tourism policies for this destination. Tourism businesses and destinations can take advantage of many CE initiatives to reduce the consumption of natural resources, organic and plastic waste generation and CO2 emissions; and reuse, recycle and recover products, services, waste, materials, water and energy, but also to achieve greater profitability and increased revenues in services provision, for example, in the hotel sector.
In order to implement a transition towards a CE strategy at any destination, one must consider all the relevant actors: DMOs and key stakeholders, resident population, tourism businesses and tourists [5
]. In fact, tourists’ attitude towards CE and their behaviour in terms of green, sustainable and circular practices during their holidays are crucial for a transition to a circular economy model in the tourism sector and destination. Although the hotel establishments and the destination implement actions aimed at a change in a CE model, without an adequate circular behaviour and attitude on the part of tourists, the efforts made by hoteliers and administrations will not be entirely useful. Hence, the role of consumers is a significant factor in the transition and their behaviour needs to be seen as an important contributor to the solutions [6
]. Sorensen and Baerenholdt [9
] indicate that tourists are co-producers of tourism experiences, and hence, the tourists’ practices sustain the transition to a circular economy. According to [10
], awareness rising among tourists is essential, because that is the weakest point in the value chain. It is essential to promote a conscious attitude of tourists about the consequences of their consumption style at destinations [11
]. In this sense, environmental education of tourists is important to make them aware of minimising their environmental impacts and the importance of not littering [11
]. Tourists should receive more information on CE mechanisms through various marketing channels [12
]. The behaviour of tourists is also essential to avoid damaging the environmental commitment assumed by tourist accommodation; therefore, collaboration between tourists and staff is needed [13
One main research question arises regarding CE practices carried out by tourists: What socioeconomic variables affect the circular or environmentally sustainable attitude and behaviour of tourists at a mature destination? In addition, complementary research questions are raised, mainly the following: What are the most common circular practices that they carry out during their stay at the hotel? What are the most common circular practices that they carry out during their stay at a destination? This article analyses the data collected from a structured questionnaire to tourists visiting Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) and staying in hotel establishments.
The aim of this paper is to study the attitude towards CE and the environmental behaviour and circular practices among tourists of a well-known mature sun and beach destination, Gran Canaria, with serious sustainability problems, especially in coastal municipalities. Hence, to identify the socioeconomic profile of tourists with a greater circular attitude and behaviour in Gran Canaria, we will analyse different aspects such as tourists’ awareness and information and their interest or reluctance to change their practices while staying at the hotel; and the most common circular practices and those that the hotel industry must promote to reach this transition. The results could be useful to design how to move away from a linear model towards a circular model in the hotel industry of Gran Canaria and of the destination.
After the introduction, this paper is organised as follows: Section 2
describes the CE background framework, and the main literature on tourists’ attitude and behaviour towards sustainability and on circular practices carried out by tourists in hotel establishments. Section 3
outlines the main hypotheses to be tested throughout the manuscript and the underlying and supporting literature. Section 4
describes the research methodology. Section 5
shows the findings of the research; Section 5.1
shows the validity and reliability analysis; Section 5.2
describes tourist’s profile; Section 5.3
presents tourist’s travel characteristics and Section 5.4
provides information about circular practices during the tourist’s stay at the hotel and on the island and circular practices carried out at the tourist’s place of residence by testing the hypotheses outlined in Section 3
. Section 6
discusses the main findings. Finally, the article concludes with a summary of future research fields and final remarks on the paper’s contribution.
The survey design for the research has been selected in a hypothesis-driven manner based on previous results that have emerged from the tourism and social science literature about circular or pro-environmentally sustainable tourist attitude and behaviour. The literature examined indicates that the socio-economic profile of customers may determine their attitude and behaviour regarding sustainability and circular economy issues (i.e., Barr [58
]). Given this empirical evidence, the hypotheses raised for the data analysis are the following:
Hypothesis 1 (H1).
Older tourists have a more circular attitude than younger tourists.
Many studies show that older tourists have a more circular attitude than younger ones: Ayazlar and Gamze [47
] found that older participants reported a more positive attitude towards green hotels than younger ones, Dolnicar [48
] showed that being older is one of the best predictors of pro-environmental behaviour of tourists, and Leonidou et al. [35
] found that tourists older in age are normally more eco-friendly than younger ones. As Han et al. [59
] stated, several studies showed that green consumers are older tourists [60
However, Andereck [38
] found a negative correlation between age and perceived value of green practices, indicating that younger tourists place more value on environmental practices. Similarly, Kiatkawsin and Han [63
] found that young people present a higher level of positive environmental attitude while Holmes et al. [64
] showed that sustainable tourists are typically younger.
Hypothesis 2 (H2).
Tourists are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly or green hotels. The older the tourist is, the greater the willingness to pay more.
Berezan et al., Masau and Prideaux, and Kelly et al. [44
] found positive evidence for consumers being willing to pay a premium for green hotel practices. In addition, Masau and Prideaux, and Han et al. [59
] indicated that tourists were willing to pay more for environmentally friendly accommodations. Additionally, according to Bohdanowicz [67
], almost 25% of guests in Scandinavian hotels are willing to pay more for accommodation in an eco-certified facility. Similarly, Kang et al. [68
] found that those U.S. hotel guests that have a higher degree of environmental concern and awareness are more willing to pay premiums for green initiatives in hotels. A related result by Borden et al. [69
] indicates that the majority of guests showed a willingness to exchange something for behaving more environmentally friendly in terms of water consumption.
On the other hand, available literature suggests that tourists’ willingness to pay for environmentally friendly or green hotels is related to their socio-demographic variables such as age, sex and education. Laroche et al. [45
] proved that women were more environmentally conscious than men and were willing to pay more for green products. However, Kostakis and Sardianou [70
] found that men are more likely than women to be willing to pay extra money for green hotels.
Mensah and Mensah [46
] found in a sample of tourists in Ghana that most of them (83%) were willing to pay more to stay in an environmentally responsible hotel. They pointed out that only age was significantly correlated to the willingness to pay more but there were strong relationships between willingness to pay and level of education. Among people under 20 years old, 21.8% were not willing to pay more while only 9.4% were willing to pay more. However, among older people (50 years old and above), a greater percentage (10.1%) were willing to pay more compared to those who were not willing to pay (1.8%).
Other studies found different results, for example, Wehrli et al. [71
] showed that respondents were not willing to pay a substantial premium for the inclusion of specific attributes. Similarly, Pulido-Fernández and Lopez-Sánchez [6
] indicated that sustainable tourists might not always be willing to pay more, as they found in their study of tourists visiting Spain, and Alemão [27
], Jauhari and Manaktola [72
], Lee et al. [73
], Baker et al. [74
] and Dimara et al. [75
] found that the majority of consumers were not willing to pay a premium for green practices.
Hypothesis 3 (H3).
There is a positive relationship between hotel category and tourists’ awareness regarding circular economy practices.
Larger and high-category hotels are at the frontline of environmental management in the hotel industry [76
]. In fact, according to Kang et al. [68
], luxury and mid-priced hotel guests are more willing to pay premiums for hotels’ green practices than economy hotel guests, so these high-category hotels can obtain higher returns from their environmental investments than low-category hotels.
Hypothesis 4 (H4).
Most tourists believe that it is important for the hotel to have an energy-saving policy.
The transition towards a CE model in the tourism sector would not be possible without the implementation of renewable energies. Ma et al. [77
] argues that using renewable resources is an important element in the design of tourism circular economy. Renewable energies can be widely used in all tourism sectors (accommodation, sewage and rubbish stations, transportation, leisure and recreation, etc.) and tourism enterprises, as well as in different tourist areas and destinations.
According to Dalton et al. [78
], 86% of a sample of tourists in Australian hotels support the use of renewable energy in the hotel. Additionally, survey respondents to the Deloitte Consumer Survey [79
] identified the following green initiatives as the most important ones: Energy-efficient lighting (74%) and energy-efficient windows (59%), while in a study by Millar and Baloglu [80
], occupancy sensors and key cards that turn the power on and off were added to the list. Kasim [81
] showed that tourists were willing to accept rooms with energy-saving solutions.
In contrast, Zografakis et al. [82
] found that hotel managers consider that tourists did not take into account hotel energy efficiency as a factor to select the hotel; only 53.2% agree or fully agree that tourists select their hotel accommodation based on its environmental image.
Hypothesis 5 (H5).
Tourists’ attitude towards circular practices varies according to socio-economic profile: Nationality, educational level and income level.
Hypothesis 5a (H5a).
Western tourists or tourists from rich countries have a more circular or pro-environmentally sustainable attitude than tourists from developing countries and Eastern and Asian tourists.
Environmentally friendly hotel practices and nationality are correlated [44
]. Baysan [53
] suggested that German tourists seem to be more aware of the environmental consequences of tourism. Similarly, Lübbert [30
] stated that about half of German tourists would consider an ecolabel when making travel decisions. Leonidou et al. [35
] showed that tourists from Western European countries have a more environmentally friendly attitude than those from Eastern European countries. Finally, Barr [58
] showed that nationality is a significant variable affecting the tourist attitude towards sustainability.
Hypothesis 5b (H5b).
There is a positive relationship between the tourists’ educational level and the circular or pro-environmentally sustainable attitude of tourists.
Berezan et al. [44
] suggested that environmentally friendly practices were significantly correlated with education. Environmental values and knowledge have significant and positive influences on the environmental behaviour intention of tourists [83
]. In this sense, Dolnicar et al. [54
] found that environmentally friendly tourists are higher-educated people with an interest in learning.
Leonidou et al., and Ayazlar and Gamze [35
] evidenced that those tourists with higher educational levels have a more environmentally friendly attitude. Similarly, Ramchurjee and Suresha [55
] demonstrated that tourists who have a bachelor’s degree and above (52.4%) had more environmentally friendly beliefs. Lita et al. [84
] found that highly educated tourists have a more positive attitude and behaviour towards green practices. However, Chia-Jung and Pei-Chun [85
] showed that having a higher level of education is associated with less green consumer behaviour. Similarly, Kollmuss and Agyeman [86
] showed that more education does not necessarily mean increased pro-environmental behaviour.
Hypothesis 5c (H5c).
There is a positive relationship between the tourists’ income level and the circular or pro-environmentally sustainable attitude of tourists.
According to Ayazlar and Gamze [47
], previous studies indicated that customers who have an environmental conscience are more likely to gain more. Leonidou et al. and Dolnicar et al. [35
] showed that those tourists who are higher-income earners have a more environmentally friendly attitude. Similarly, Chia-Jung and Pei-Chun [85
] found that having a higher income is related to higher green consumer behaviour. The higher-income tourists were more willing to accept that personal toiletries were not provided in hotel rooms.
Similarly, Kasperson et al. [87
] considered that tourists who accept the use of recycled water are characterised by having: High income, high levels of education and advanced age.
Kang et al. [68
] argued that other studies obtained different results; in fact, Power and Elster [88
], and UNDP [89
] showed that low-income people are more sensitive towards the environment because their quality of life is more influenced by environmental topics.
Hypothesis 6 (H6).
Recycling practices and reuse of towel and linen are the most common sustainable/circular hotel practices carried out by tourists.
Reuse of towels or linens has received great attention in the literature [90
]. In fact, the most common sustainable hotel practices that customers value more are the use of recycling bins and reusable towel and linen schemes [93
Berezan et al. [44
] stated that a towel reuse policy is one of the most widely recognised green practices, especially in the United States. Dimara et al. [96
] also found that 72% of the tourists in hotels in two Greek cities would adopt a towel reuse program.
According to the Deloitte Consumer Survey [79
], survey respondents indicated the following green initiatives as the most important ones: Recycling, energy-efficient lighting, energy-efficient windows, in-room cards for indicating the option of not having sheets/towels changed daily and environmentally safe cleaning products. Similarly, in a study by Kasim [81
], tourists were willing to book rooms with water-saving technologies, recycling bins, energy-saving solutions, and information on local ecotourism attractions; and Andereck [38
] stated that more than half of tourists believed that environmentally responsible initiatives, such as recycling bins or products made from recycled materials, were extremely important.
However, Tartaglia and de Grosbois [97
] found out that the majority of respondents did not engage at all or only sometimes in the use of recycling bins, and the change of sheets and towels when necessary. Thus, tourists engaged strongly in energy and water conservation practices but not in the reuse of towels.
Hypothesis 7 (H7).
There are gender differences in tourists’ circular practices in hotels.
The environmental behaviour of tourists according to their gender has been extensively investigated. Several studies found that women tend to be more ecologically conscious than men [49
According to Mensah [51
], women were more environmentally responsible than men. They had a greater tendency to switch off lights when leaving their rooms, to purchase local souvenirs and food, to recycle correctly and not to buy things not needed. Laroche et al. [45
] also proved that females were more environmentally conscious than males and were willing to pay more for green products. Similarly, Millar and Baloglu [80
] discovered that preferences for green attributes were higher for females than for males on eight out of the twelve attributes analysed, and that is an indicator of a higher pro-environmental behaviour of females.
For Mensah [51
], gender socialisation in women leads them to greater environmental sensitivity, and hence, to higher pro-environmental behaviours than men [98
]. However, other studies have not established significant differences in the pro-environmental behaviours of males and females [101
Hypothesis 8 (H8).
There are differences between the circular practices carried out while on holidays in a hotel and those carried out at the tourist place of residence.
There are studies that have investigated the differences between pro-environmental behaviour at home and on vacation. For example, Miao and Wei [103
] showed that tourists’ active environmentalism while staying in a hotel is different from that in their household.
Other studies have shown that people tend to engage in pro-environmental behaviour at home more than when travelling [104
]. For these authors, tourists are felt more morally obligated to behave in an environmentally sustainable manner at home than when on vacation. In a study by Baker et al. [74
], about 60% of respondents recycled paper products at home while only 30% did so while at a hotel; 60% also conserved water at home and less than 40% did so at a hotel; and 80% of respondents conserved energy at home but only 40% who saved energy did so while staying at a hotel.
In addition, Dolnicar and Grün [106
] stated that good environmental behaviour decreases during vacations compared to the home context. Similarly, Ramchurjee and Suresha [55
] showed that tourists feel more responsible for the environment at home where they live and are willing to act in a more environmentally sustainable way in their immediate surroundings, and Holmes et al. [64
] found that the more actions residents did at home, the more they would engage when traveling.
Our results support hypothesis H1 and are consistent with those of Leonidou et al., Ayazlar and Gamze, and Dolnicar [35
], indicating that older tourists in Gran Canaria have a higher pro-environmental or circular attitude in hotel establishments than younger tourists.
Findings also indicate that most tourists (60.9%) are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly or green hotels. This result supports hypothesis H2, and confirms the results of Berezan et al., Masau and Prideaux, Kelly et al., and Han et al. [44
]. Our results also show that tourists’ willingness to pay for more environmentally sustainable hotels is related to their socio-demographic profile. There are significant differences by tourists’ age or nationality in their willingness to pay more for a hotel that is environmentally responsive. The older a tourist is, the greater the willingness to pay more; this result is consistent with that of Mensah and Mensah [46
] who pointed out that only age is significantly related to willingness to pay more. Furthermore, our results indicate that there is no gender or educational differences. However, Laroche et al. [45
] proved that females were more environmentally conscious than males and were willing to pay more, and Mensah and Mensah [46
] obtained that there were also strong relationships between the willingness to pay and the level of education.
On the other hand, our results show that there is no relationship between hotel category and tourists’ awareness regarding circular economy practices; therefore, hypothesis H3 is not supported. These results do not match with those of Kang et al. [68
] who stated that luxury and mid-priced hotel guests are more willing to pay premiums for hotels’ green practices than guests of lower-category hotels.
Results also show that most tourists believe that it is important for the hotel to have an energy-saving policy, supporting hypothesis H4. The results are in line with those of Dalton et al. [78
] and those of the Deloitte Consumer Survey [79
], which identified energy-efficient lighting and energy-efficient windows as the most important green initiatives for tourists. However, they are opposite to those of Zografakis et al. [82
] who argued that tourists do not consider hotel energy efficiency as a factor to select the hotel.
Additionally, our results indicate that tourists´ attitude towards circular practices varies according to socio-economic profile. First, there are significant differences between tourists’ nationality and their attitude towards the circular practices carried out by the hotel establishment; therefore, hypothesis H5a is supported. This result is consistent with those of Leonidou et al. and Berezan et al. [35
] who showed that tourists from Western European countries have a more environmentally friendly attitude than those from Eastern European countries. Second, there is a positive relationship between tourist educational level and tourist’s circular attitude, so hypothesis H5b is also supported. These results are in line with Berezan et al. [44
] who suggested that environmentally friendly practices were significantly correlated with education. In this sense, Dolnicar et al. [54
] found that environmentally friendly tourists are people with higher educational levels and with an interest in learning. Similarly, Leonidou et al., and Ayazlar and Gamze [35
] evidenced that those tourists with higher educational levels have a more environmentally friendly attitude. Third, results show that there are no significant differences between the circular attitudes of tourists according to their income level; therefore, the results do not support hypothesis H5c. Thus, these results do not match with the results of numerous authors such as Leonidou et al., Ayazlar and Gamze, Dolnicar et al., and Chia-Jung and Pei-Chun [35
] who found that those tourists who are higher-income earners have a more environmentally friendly attitude.
On the other hand, findings also support hypothesis H6 and are consistent with those of Kim Lian Chan and Baum, Han and Kim, and Millar et al. [93
] who stated that the most common sustainable hotel practices carried out by tourists are the use of recycling bins and reusable towel and linen schemes. Similarly, Berezan et al. [44
] stated that one of the most widely recognised green practices, especially in the United States, is the towel reuse policy. Additionally, results show that tourists’ behaviour towards recycling practices and reuse of towel and linen only varies according to gender or nationality. Specifically, women recycle and ask for a change of sheets or towels only when necessary, while men change them more frequently, and tourists from Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom ask for a change of sheets or towels only when necessary, while tourists from Spain and other countries are less aware and change them more often.
Additionally, women also report a higher circular behaviour than men in not turning the air conditioning down below 22 °C and trying to reduce food waste in restaurants. This result supports hypothesis H7 and is consistent with those of Mensah and Mensah, and Laroche et al. [45
] who proved that women were more environmentally conscious than men. Similarly, Millar and Baloglu [80
] found that preferences for green attributes were higher for women than for men on eight out of twelve attributes, indicating a higher pro-environmental behaviour of females.
Finally, this work investigated if there were differences between the circular practices carried out while on holidays in a hotel and those carried out at the tourist place of residence. Results indicate that 86.5% of tourists carry out the same environmentally sustainable practices; therefore, hypothesis H8 is not supported. However, if we analyse how often they carry out the same circular practices in their place of residence as when travelling according to socio-demographic factors, results indicate that there are no significant differences by gender or nationality in the frequency of doing the same circular practices at home as when travelling. However, there are significant differences according to tourists’ age. Tourists over 55 years old do the same circular practices at home as when traveling more frequently than younger tourists. These results do not match with those of Ramchurjee and Suresha, Dolnicar and Leisch, Miao and Wei, and Dolnicar and Grün [55
] who found that good environmental behaviour decreases during vacations compared to the home context.
Tourism is an important contributor to economic growth, employment and GDP in many countries and regions, especially in the Canary Islands where it represents 35.2% of GDP and 40.2% of employment [3
]. Nevertheless, tourism growth and development in the Canaries have altered the state of the coastal environment and have generated negative externalities on the environment. The implementation of CE models and solutions is especially important at island destinations to reduce environmental impacts generated by tourism activity. Tourism businesses and destinations can take advantage of many CE initiatives to reduce the trend but also to achieve greater profitability, increasing revenues in the provision of services, for example, in the hotel sector [21
]. In this sense, the aim of this paper was to analyse the attitude towards CE and the environmental behaviour and circular practices among tourists of a well-known mature sun and beach destination, Gran Canaria, in order to design the transition from a linear model to a circular model in the hotel industry of this destination.
The first objective of the paper was to analyse the attitude of tourists towards CE in hotel establishments. The results indicate first that tourists’ attitude towards circular practices varies according to socio-economic profile: Nationality, educational level and income level. Specifically: German and Swedish tourists and those tourists with higher educational level show a more circular attitude towards the environmental practices carried out by hotels than the rest of the tourists. However, there are no significant differences in the circular attitudes of tourists according to their income level; there are only significant differences in the importance that tourists give to hotels having recycling and waste management policies. Second, older tourists have a higher pro-environmental or circular attitude in hotel establishments than younger ones. Findings also show that most tourists (60.9%) are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly or green hotels and believe that it is important for the hotel to have an energy-saving policy. Therefore, these results indicate which type of tourists, according to socio-economic profile, hotels and destinations, should place greater emphasis on conveying the message of the importance of having a circular attitude during their holidays. Hence, the objective was to identify the tourists who have a more circular attitude and behaviour at a mature destination (Gran Canaria) according to their socio-economic profile.
The second objective was to analyse the environmental behaviour and circular practices carried out by tourists. Results show that the most common sustainable hotel practices carried out by tourists are the use of recycling bins and reusable towel and linen schemes, and that women report significantly higher pro-environmental behaviours than men. Consequently, hotel managers should consider having recycling bins in their establishments and guests should be offered information about the change of towels and sheets only when necessary as these two aspects are quite well received by tourists
Furthermore, results indicate that 86.5% of tourists carry out the same CE practices on holidays as in their place of residence and there are only significant differences according to tourists’ age in the frequency of doing the same circular practices at home as when travelling. Tourists over 55 years old carry out more frequently the same circular practices at home as when traveling than younger tourists. Additionally, tourists were asked about the circular practices they carry out at their place of residence, and findings show that the most common practices are recycling paper and cardboard and plastic containers, trying to save water and energy, and turning off air conditioning, heating and lights when leaving home. Destinations and hotels should take this into account to promote these types of practices during the tourist’s stay.
The COVID-19 pandemic has obviously enormous negative economic consequences in the tourism sector, especially at island destinations such as Gran Canaria, but it also poses challenges and opens up new opportunities for the tourism sector. It has shown that tourist businesses need to be flexible and ready for change. Many businesses will look for an increase in brand image while reducing the cost associated, and them moving away from a linear economy model towards the CE in tourism is the possible solution [110
]. As Zhang and Tian [111
] stated, in order to increase the competitiveness of the tourism industry, circular tourism must be the solution. Therefore, environmental information and education by hotels to their guests are of great importance in order to achieve a change in the behaviour of tourists with respect to the CE. The tourism industry should focus on investing in training, innovation, analysis, research and resources to achieve the transition to a CE model in the sector.
To sum up, more research is needed on how to generate CE solutions towards a more environmentally sustainable tourism industry. Therefore, future research could focus on defining CE strategies and initiatives for hotels, tourism business and destinations to attract tourists who are more aware about the CE issue. Another future line of research could be the investigation of circular practices carried out by hotels and those that have to be implemented or promoted to achieve the change to a circular model in the tourism industry.
Finally, this study faces various limitations that could reduce the generalisation of its results. On the one hand, the study analyses the attitude towards CE and the environmental behaviour and circular practices among tourists of a well-known mature sun and beach destination, Gran Canaria. Thus, further empirical studies should be carried out for results to be representative for all sun and beach tourist destinations. On the other hand, results may be different at other types of tourist destinations, such as an urban or rural tourist destination; future research may involve this type of destinations and results comparison.