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Article

Air Pollution Is Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in Vienna, Austria

1
Center for Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
2
Department of Hygiene, Medical University of Karakalpakstan, Nukus 230100, Uzbekistan
3
Institute of Meteorology and Climatology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, 1180 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249275
Received: 13 October 2020 / Revised: 1 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
We determined the impact of air pollution on COVID-19-related mortality and reported-case incidence, analyzing the correlation of infection case numbers and outcomes with previous-year air pollution data from the populations of 23 Viennese districts. Time at risk started in a district when the first COVID-19 case was diagnosed. High exposure levels were defined as living in a district with an average (year 2019) concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and/or particulate matter (PM10) higher than the upper quartile (30 and 20 µg/m3, respectively) of all districts. The total population of the individual districts was followed until diagnosis of or death from COVID-19, or until 21 April 2020, whichever came first. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed after controlling for percentage of population aged 65 and more, percentage of foreigners and of persons with a university degree, unemployment rate, and population density. PM10 and NO2 were significantly and positively associated with the risk of a COVID-19 diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.44 and 1.16, respectively). NO2 was also significantly associated with death from COVID-19 (HR = 1.72). Even within a single city, higher levels of air pollution are associated with an adverse impact on COVID-19 risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; PM10; NO2; spatial air pollution differences; incidence; mortality COVID-19; PM10; NO2; spatial air pollution differences; incidence; mortality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hutter, H.-P.; Poteser, M.; Moshammer, H.; Lemmerer, K.; Mayer, M.; Weitensfelder, L.; Wallner, P.; Kundi, M. Air Pollution Is Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in Vienna, Austria. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9275. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249275

AMA Style

Hutter H-P, Poteser M, Moshammer H, Lemmerer K, Mayer M, Weitensfelder L, Wallner P, Kundi M. Air Pollution Is Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in Vienna, Austria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(24):9275. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249275

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hutter, Hans-Peter, Michael Poteser, Hanns Moshammer, Kathrin Lemmerer, Monika Mayer, Lisbeth Weitensfelder, Peter Wallner, and Michael Kundi. 2020. "Air Pollution Is Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality in Vienna, Austria" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 24: 9275. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249275

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