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What Types of Greenspaces Are Associated with Depression in Urban and Rural Older Adults? A Multilevel Cross-Sectional Study from JAGES

1
Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 260-8672, Japan
2
Center for Preventive Medical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cyo, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
3
Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 7-430 Morikoka-cho, Obu-shi, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249276
Received: 6 November 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
Depression in older adults is a public health challenge. We aimed to clarify the relationship between depression in older adults and three types of neighborhood greenspaces: trees, grasslands, and fields. We utilized data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) performed in 2016. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used for non-stratified and stratified analyses for the urban–rural regions. The target population comprised 126,878 older adults (age ≥ 65 years) who responded to the depression questions and were living in 881 neighborhoods in Japan. Depression was diagnosed based on a Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥5, and 20.4% of the study population had depression. In the pre-stratification analysis, areas with more greenspaces revealed lower odds of depression (odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–0.95). In urban areas, more trees correlated with lower odds of depression (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89–1.00). In rural areas, moderate amounts of grassland were associated with lower odds of depression compared to areas with fewer grasslands (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83–1.00). We found that urban areas with higher tree density and rural areas with moderate amounts of grassland were associated with lower odds of depression. View Full-Text
Keywords: older adults; depression; mental health; greenspace; trees; grasslands; fields; built environment; urban; rural older adults; depression; mental health; greenspace; trees; grasslands; fields; built environment; urban; rural
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nishigaki, M.; Hanazato, M.; Koga, C.; Kondo, K. What Types of Greenspaces Are Associated with Depression in Urban and Rural Older Adults? A Multilevel Cross-Sectional Study from JAGES. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 9276. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249276

AMA Style

Nishigaki M, Hanazato M, Koga C, Kondo K. What Types of Greenspaces Are Associated with Depression in Urban and Rural Older Adults? A Multilevel Cross-Sectional Study from JAGES. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(24):9276. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249276

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nishigaki, Miho; Hanazato, Masamichi; Koga, Chie; Kondo, Katsunori. 2020. "What Types of Greenspaces Are Associated with Depression in Urban and Rural Older Adults? A Multilevel Cross-Sectional Study from JAGES" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 24: 9276. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249276

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