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Open AccessArticle

Coronavirus Lockdown as a Major Life Stressor: Does It Affect TMD Symptoms?

Orthodontic Residency, Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
Department of Dental Clinic, Catholic University of Sacred Hearth, 00198 Rome, Italy
Faculty of Medicine and Dental Surgery, University of Rome “Sapienza”, 00185 Rome, Italy
Chinesis I.F.O.P. Istituto di Formazione in Osteopatia e in Posturologia, 00152 Rome, Italy
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
ENT Department, Rivoli Hospital, ASL TO3 Torino, Italy
Faculty of Psychology, eCampus University, 22090 Novedrate, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8907;
Received: 18 October 2020 / Revised: 25 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 30 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Health)
Temporomandibular disorders are multi-factorial conditions that are caused by both physical and psychological factors. It has been well established that stress triggers or worsens TMDs. This paper looks to present early research, still unfolding, on the relationship between COVID-19 as a major life stressor and TMDs. The main aims of this study were to: investigate the presence of symptoms related to TMDs and the time of onset and the worsening of painful symptoms in relation to the changes in social life imposed by the coronavirus pandemic; and to evaluate the perception of COVID-19 as a major stressful event in subjects who report worsening of painful TMD symptoms. One hundred and eighty-two subjects answered questionnaires—Axis II of the RDC/TMD, the PSS, and specific items about coronavirus as a stressful event—during the lockdown period for COVID-19 in Italy to evaluate the presence of reported symptoms of TMD and the level of depression, somatization, and stress perceived. The results showed that 40.7% of subjects complained about TMD symptoms in the past month. Regarding the time of onset, 60.8% of them reported that facial pain started in the last three months, while 51.4% of these subjects reported that their symptoms worsened in the last month and were related to the aggravation of pain due to the coronavirus lockdown as a major life event and to the stress experienced. The results of this study seem to support the hypothesis that stress during the pandemic lockdown influenced the onset of temporomandibular joint disorders and facial pain, albeit with individual responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; temporomandibular disorders; stress; orofacial pain COVID-19; lockdown; temporomandibular disorders; stress; orofacial pain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saccomanno, S.; Bernabei, M.; Scoppa, F.; Pirino, A.; Mastrapasqua, R.; Visco, M.A. Coronavirus Lockdown as a Major Life Stressor: Does It Affect TMD Symptoms? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8907.

AMA Style

Saccomanno S, Bernabei M, Scoppa F, Pirino A, Mastrapasqua R, Visco MA. Coronavirus Lockdown as a Major Life Stressor: Does It Affect TMD Symptoms? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):8907.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saccomanno, Sabina; Bernabei, Mauro; Scoppa, Fabio; Pirino, Alessio; Mastrapasqua, Rodolfo; Visco, Marina A. 2020. "Coronavirus Lockdown as a Major Life Stressor: Does It Affect TMD Symptoms?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 23: 8907.

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