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Female Fertility and Environmental Pollution

DAHFMO, Unit of Histology and Medical Embryology, Sapienza, University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
San Raffaele Scientific Institute, IRCCS H.S.Raffaele, 20132 Milano, Italy
Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica, Sanità Pubblica, Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8802;
Received: 4 October 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 24 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Women's Health)
A realistic picture of our world shows that it is heavily polluted everywhere. Coastal regions and oceans are polluted by farm fertilizer, manure runoff, sewage and industrial discharges, and large isles of waste plastic are floating around, impacting sea life. Terrestrial ecosystems are contaminated by heavy metals and organic chemicals that can be taken up by and accumulate in crop plants, and water tables are heavily contaminated by untreated industrial discharges. As deadly particulates can drift far, poor air quality has become a significant global problem and one that is not exclusive to major industrialized cities. The consequences are a dramatic impairment of our ecosystem and biodiversity and increases in degenerative or man-made diseases. In this respect, it has been demonstrated that environmental pollution impairs fertility in all mammalian species. The worst consequences are observed for females since the number of germ cells present in the ovary is fixed during fetal life, and the cells are not renewable. This means that any pollutant affecting hormonal homeostasis and/or the reproductive apparatus inevitably harms reproductive performance. This decline will have important social and economic consequences that can no longer be overlooked. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovary; hormones; endocrine disruptors; environmental pollution; heavy metals; female reproduction ovary; hormones; endocrine disruptors; environmental pollution; heavy metals; female reproduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Canipari, R.; De Santis, L.; Cecconi, S. Female Fertility and Environmental Pollution. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8802.

AMA Style

Canipari R, De Santis L, Cecconi S. Female Fertility and Environmental Pollution. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):8802.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Canipari, Rita; De Santis, Lucia; Cecconi, Sandra. 2020. "Female Fertility and Environmental Pollution" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 23: 8802.

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