Next Article in Journal
Assessing Rolling Abilities in Primary School Children: Physical Education Specialists vs. Generalists
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluating Health Literacy among Adolescent and Young Adult Pregnant Women from a Low-Income Area of Northeast Brazil
Previous Article in Journal
Surgical Treatment of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: A Retrospective Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Increasing HPV Vaccination Uptake among Adolescents: A Systematic Review
Open AccessReview

Female Fertility and Environmental Pollution

1
DAHFMO, Unit of Histology and Medical Embryology, Sapienza, University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
San Raffaele Scientific Institute, IRCCS H.S.Raffaele, 20132 Milano, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica, Sanità Pubblica, Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238802
Received: 4 October 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 24 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Women's Health)
A realistic picture of our world shows that it is heavily polluted everywhere. Coastal regions and oceans are polluted by farm fertilizer, manure runoff, sewage and industrial discharges, and large isles of waste plastic are floating around, impacting sea life. Terrestrial ecosystems are contaminated by heavy metals and organic chemicals that can be taken up by and accumulate in crop plants, and water tables are heavily contaminated by untreated industrial discharges. As deadly particulates can drift far, poor air quality has become a significant global problem and one that is not exclusive to major industrialized cities. The consequences are a dramatic impairment of our ecosystem and biodiversity and increases in degenerative or man-made diseases. In this respect, it has been demonstrated that environmental pollution impairs fertility in all mammalian species. The worst consequences are observed for females since the number of germ cells present in the ovary is fixed during fetal life, and the cells are not renewable. This means that any pollutant affecting hormonal homeostasis and/or the reproductive apparatus inevitably harms reproductive performance. This decline will have important social and economic consequences that can no longer be overlooked. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovary; hormones; endocrine disruptors; environmental pollution; heavy metals; female reproduction ovary; hormones; endocrine disruptors; environmental pollution; heavy metals; female reproduction
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Canipari, R.; De Santis, L.; Cecconi, S. Female Fertility and Environmental Pollution. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8802. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238802

AMA Style

Canipari R, De Santis L, Cecconi S. Female Fertility and Environmental Pollution. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23):8802. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238802

Chicago/Turabian Style

Canipari, Rita; De Santis, Lucia; Cecconi, Sandra. 2020. "Female Fertility and Environmental Pollution" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 23: 8802. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238802

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop