Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides some of which are endowed with antiviral, anticancer and antibiofilm properties. These properties could be improved through synergistic interactions of these bacteriocins with other bioactive molecules such as antibiotics, phages, nanoparticles and essential oils. A number of studies are steadily reporting the effects of these combinations as new and potential therapeutic strategies in the future, as they may offer many incentives over existing therapies. In particular, bacteriocins can benefit from combination with nanoparticles which can improve their stability and solubility, and protect them from enzymatic degradation, reduce their interactions with other molecules and improve their bioavailability. Furthermore, the combination of bacteriocins with other antimicrobials is foreseen as a way to reduce the development of antibiotic resistance due to the involvement of several modes of action. Another relevant advantage of these synergistic combinations is that it decreases the concentration of each antimicrobial component, thereby reducing their side effects such as their toxicity. In addition, combination can extend the utility of bacteriocins as antiviral or anticancer agents. Thus, in this review, we report and discuss the synergistic effects of bacteriocin combinations as medicines, and also for other diverse applications including, antiviral, antispoilage, anticancer and antibiofilms.
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