Next Article in Journal
Knowledge Graph Analysis of Human Health Research Related to Climate Change
Next Article in Special Issue
Citation Network Analysis of the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
Previous Article in Journal
Association between Area-Level Socioeconomic Deprivation and Prehospital Delay in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients: An Ecological Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Epidemiology of and Risk Factors for COVID-19 Infection among Health Care Workers: A Multi-Centre Comparative Study
Comment published on 21 December 2020, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9559.
Article

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Hospitalised Current Smokers and COVID-19

1
School of Medicine, CRIB, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 02008 Albacete, Spain
2
Hospital General La Mancha Centro, Servicio de Salud de Castilla-La Mancha, Alcazar de San Juan, 13600 Ciudad Real, Spain
3
Gerencia de Atención Primaria, Salud de Castilla y Leon, 05003 Avila, Spain
4
Gerencia de Emergencias Sanitarias, 47407 Salud de Castilla y Leon, Spain
5
Centre for Biomedical Research, School of Medicine, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207394
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 29 September 2020 / Accepted: 8 October 2020 / Published: 11 October 2020
SARS-CoV-2 is a new coronavirus that has caused a worldwide pandemic. It produces severe acute respiratory disease (COVID-19), which is fatal in many cases, characterised by the cytokine release syndrome (CRS). According to the World Health Organization, those who smoke are likely to be more vulnerable to infection. Here, in order to clarify the epidemiologic relationship between smoking and COVID-19, we present a systematic literature review until 28th April 2020 and a meta-analysis. We included 18 recent COVID-19 clinical and epidemiological studies based on smoking patient status from 720 initial studies in China, the USA, and Italy. The percentage of hospitalised current smokers was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.9–8.4) in China, 2.3% (95% CI: 1.7–2.9) in the USA and 7.6% (95% CI: 4.2–11.0) in Italy. These percentages were compared to the smoking prevalence of each country and statistically significant differences were found in them all (p < 0.0001). By means of the meta-analysis, we offer epidemiological evidence showing that smokers were statistically less likely to be hospitalised (OR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.14–0.23, p < 0.01). In conclusion, the analysis of data from 18 studies shows a much lower percentage of hospitalised current smokers than expected. As more studies become available, this trend should be checked to obtain conclusive results and to explore, where appropriate, the underlying mechanism of the severe progression and adverse outcomes of COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway; nicotine; cytokine release syndrome (CRS); current smokers COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway; nicotine; cytokine release syndrome (CRS); current smokers
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

González-Rubio, J.; Navarro-López, C.; López-Nájera, E.; López-Nájera, A.; Jiménez-Díaz, L.; Navarro-López, J.D.; Nájera, A. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Hospitalised Current Smokers and COVID-19. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7394. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207394

AMA Style

González-Rubio J, Navarro-López C, López-Nájera E, López-Nájera A, Jiménez-Díaz L, Navarro-López JD, Nájera A. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Hospitalised Current Smokers and COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(20):7394. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207394

Chicago/Turabian Style

González-Rubio, Jesus, Carmen Navarro-López, Elena López-Nájera, Ana López-Nájera, Lydia Jiménez-Díaz, Juan D. Navarro-López, and Alberto Nájera. 2020. "A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Hospitalised Current Smokers and COVID-19" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 20: 7394. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207394

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop