Next Article in Journal
Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in the Effect of Urban Environmental Factors on Air Temperature: A Consecutive Regression Analysis Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Does Smartphone Addiction Fall on a Continuum of Addictive Behaviors?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Retrospective and Prospective Look at Aflatoxin Research and Development from a Practical Standpoint
Open AccessReview

Chronic and Acute Toxicities of Aflatoxins: Mechanisms of Action

Department of Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry MacDonald Campus, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada
Retired.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020423
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 29 December 2019 / Published: 8 January 2020
There are presently more than 18 known aflatoxins most of which have been insufficiently studied for their incidence, health-risk, and mechanisms of toxicity to allow effective intervention and control means that would significantly and sustainably reduce their incidence and adverse effects on health and economy. Among these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been by far the most studied; yet, many aspects of the range and mechanisms of the diseases it causes remain to be elucidated. Its mutagenicity, tumorigenicity, and carcinogenicity—which are the best known—still suffer from limitations regarding the relative contribution of the oxidative stress and the reactive epoxide derivative (Aflatoxin-exo 8,9-epoxide) in the induction of the diseases, as well as its metabolic and synthesis pathways. Additionally, despite the well-established additive effects for carcinogenicity between AFB1 and other risk factors, e.g., hepatitis viruses B and C, and the hepatotoxic algal microcystins, the mechanisms of this synergy remain unclear. This study reviews the most recent advances in the field of the mechanisms of toxicity of aflatoxins and the adverse health effects that they cause in humans and animals. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; tumorigenicity; carcinogenicity; acute toxicity; immunogenicity; genotoxicity aflatoxins; tumorigenicity; carcinogenicity; acute toxicity; immunogenicity; genotoxicity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Benkerroum, N. Chronic and Acute Toxicities of Aflatoxins: Mechanisms of Action. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 423.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop