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Open AccessArticle

Maternal Socioeconomic Factors and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Neonatal Anthropometry

1
Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2
Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
3
Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
5
Irvine, Obstetrics & Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of California, Orange, CA 92697, USA
6
Fountain Valley Regional Hospital and Medical Center, Fountain Valley, CA 92708, USA
7
The Prospective Group, Arlington, VA 22209, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Disclaimer: This work was presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in Austin, TX, April, 2018.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7323; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197323
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 25 September 2020 / Accepted: 30 September 2020 / Published: 7 October 2020
Disparities in birthweight by maternal race/ethnicity are commonly observed. It is unclear to what extent these disparities are correlates of individual socioeconomic factors. In a prospective cohort of 1645 low-risk singleton pregnancies included in the NICHD Fetal Growth Study (2009–2013), neonatal anthropometry was measured by trained personnel using a standard protocol. Socioeconomic characteristics included employment status, marital status, health insurance, annual income, and education. Separate adjusted generalized linear models were fit to both test the effect of race/ethnicity and the interaction of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics on neonatal anthropometry. Mean infant birthweight, length, head circumference, and abdominal circumference all differed by race/ethnicity (p < 0.001). We observed no statistically significant interactions between race/ethnicity and full-time employment/student status, marital status, insurance, or education in association with birthweight, neonatal exam weight, length, or head or abdominal circumference at examination. The interaction between income and race/ethnicity was significant only for abdominal circumference (p = 0.027), with no other significant interactions for other growth parameters, suggesting that racial/ethnic differences in neonatal anthropometry did not vary by individual socioeconomic factors in low-risk women. Our results do not preclude structural factors, such as lifetime exposure to poverty, as an explanation for racial/ethnic disparities. View Full-Text
Keywords: abdominal circumference; biparietal diameter; birthweight; disparities; fetal growth; head circumference; neonatal length; singletons; socioeconomic status abdominal circumference; biparietal diameter; birthweight; disparities; fetal growth; head circumference; neonatal length; singletons; socioeconomic status
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lambert, C.; Gleason, J.L.; Pugh, S.J.; Liu, A.; Bever, A.; Grobman, W.A.; Newman, R.B.; Wing, D.; Gerlanc, N.M.; Tekola-Ayele, F.; Grantz, K.L. Maternal Socioeconomic Factors and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Neonatal Anthropometry. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7323. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197323

AMA Style

Lambert C, Gleason JL, Pugh SJ, Liu A, Bever A, Grobman WA, Newman RB, Wing D, Gerlanc NM, Tekola-Ayele F, Grantz KL. Maternal Socioeconomic Factors and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Neonatal Anthropometry. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(19):7323. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197323

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lambert, Calvin; Gleason, Jessica L.; Pugh, Sarah J.; Liu, Aiyi; Bever, Alaina; Grobman, William A.; Newman, Roger B.; Wing, Deborah; Gerlanc, Nicole M.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Grantz, Katherine L. 2020. "Maternal Socioeconomic Factors and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Neonatal Anthropometry" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 19: 7323. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197323

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