2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Software Tools and Statistical Analysis
2.2. Ethical Committee
3.1. Quantitative Analysis
3.2. Qualitative Analysis
- Several children who drowned seemed to be playing alone (n = 19).
- Several children seemed to jump into the water with great confidence to discover that they could not manage the situation in the water (n = 9).
- People seemed to be looking at the person who is drowning without taking action (n = 13). In some of these videos, the distance between them was less than an arm-reach.
- One person in trouble with another person, or with a group, causes them all to drown (n = 5).
- Toddlers in floating rings who simply turned upside down (n = 3).
- One child initially seemed to be playing in the water by tumbling head forward. After some time, the movements remain identical but less intentional. At the end, the child does not move at all and remains motionless floating for around 3 min just under the surface before being taken out by a pool visitor.
- One adult, while swimming, suddenly disappears underwater while his swimming movements become weaker. Weak and uncoordinated underwater movements continue for almost 4 min before all movements stop. In another swimmer, the same happened initially but this person was rescued. Both situations occurred in a full-sized swimming pool and it is highly unlikely that the movements were caused by underwater currents.
Conflicts of Interest
- Cristian Abelairas-Gómez (CA-G), Faculty of Education, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain;
- Stathis Avramidis, Greek Lifesaving Sports Association, Athens, Greece;
- Shayne Baker, Royal Life Saving Society Australia, Sydney, Australia;
- Roberto Barcala-Furelos, Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, REMOSS University Research Group in Lifesaving, University of Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain;
- Rachel Griffiths, Aquatic Safety Research Group, State College, Pennsylvania, United States;
- Tom Griffiths, Aquatic Safety Research Group, State College, Pennsylvania, United States;
- Gareth Hedges, H2O Safety Consulting, Durham North Carolina, USA;
- William Koon, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University New South Wales Sydney, Sydney, Australia;
- Dan Kwaczynski, Australian Leisure Facilities Association, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia;
- Ross Macleod, Royal National Lifeboat Institution, Dorset, Great Britain;
- Adrian Mayhew, Surf Life Saving, Exeter, Great Britain;
- Patrick Morgan, Extreme Environments Laboratory, School of Sport, Health & Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Great Britain;
- Nick Mulcahy, Surf Life Saving New Zealand, Lower Hutt City, Wellington, New Zealand;
- Liliana Oliveira, Safer in Water, Guimarães, Portugal;
- Luis-Miguel Pascual-Gómez, Segovia Life Saving School, Segovia, Spain;
- Ana Catarina Queiroga, Institute of Public Health of the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal;
- Craig Roberts, Royal Life Saving Society Australia, Sydney, Australia;
- Justin Sempsrott, Lifeguards Without Borders, Kuna, Idaho, USA;
- Jennifer Smith, Institute of Sport, University of Chichester, Chichester, Great Britain;
- Leonardo Springer, Higher Institute of Education and Sciences (ISEC) Lisboa, Portugal;
- David Szpilman, Brazilian Life Saving Society (SOBRASA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;
- Michael J. Tipton, Extreme Environments Laboratory, School of Sport, Health & Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Great Britain;
- Evangelos Tsampazis, Lifeguard Academy of Northern Greece, Thessaloniki, Greece.
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|Location||Home swimming pool outdoor||2||(8.4)|
|Swimming pool indoor||5||(20.8)|
|Swimming pool outdoor||14||(58.3)|
|Water movements||Water is moving||2||(8.3)|
|Water stands still||22||(91.6)|
|Floatation device||Without flotation device||17||(70.8)|
|With flotation device||4||(16.7)|
|Presence of lifeguard||Yes||8||(33.3)|
|Presence of others in the water||Nobody||8||(33.3)|
|Less than 5 people||6||(25)|
|Between 5 and 25 people||6||(25)|
|More than 25 people||4||(16.7)|
|Presence of others outside the water||Nobody||1||(4.2)|
|Less than 5 people||14||(58.3)|
|Between 5 and 25 people||8||(33.3)|
|Drowning detected by||Person in the water||7||(29.2)|
|Person outside the water||11||(45.8)|
|Person in the water||7||(29.2)|
|Person outside the water||9||(37.5)|
|Accidentally captured by camera||2||(8.3)|
|Intentional captured by camera||5||(20.8)|
|Persons Rescued||Persons Not Rescued; Appeared on the Video to Be Unconscious by the End of the Drowning Process||p-Value **|
|Number of disappearances||5 (2–6.5)||1–16||17||10 (4.5–25)||1–34||5||p = 0.080|
|Length of disappearances (seconds)||13 (7–20.5)||0–54||17||90 (43.5–98)||34–102||5||p = 0.003|
|Number of resurfacing||5 (3–6.5)||1–16||13||13 (8.5–29.5)||8–34||4||p = 0.016|
|Length of resurfacing|
|14 (10.5–31.5)||7–54||13||92 (62.3–100)||53–102||4||p = 0.005|
|Time of movements of the person above the water stop due to rescue (seconds)||17 (14–58)||7–160||15|
|Time of movements of the person above the water stop spontaneously|
|Time of final disappearance underwater (seconds)||106 *||34–132||3|
|Duration of the visible drowning behaviour above the water until the rescue (seconds)||14.5 (10.3–44.5)||4–81||16|
|Duration of the visible drowning behaviour above the water until this spontaneously stopped (seconds)||94.5 (80.5–95.8)||76–96||4|
|The interval from the beginning of the incident to the final disappearance (seconds)||94 *||6–95||3|
|The interval from the beginning of the incident to the rescue (seconds)||15 (10–45)||4–154||19||229 (89.8–261.8)||52–264||4||p = 0.004|
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