Childcare Food Provision Recommendations Vary across Australia: Jurisdictional Comparison and Nutrition Expert Perspectives
- to map and compare existing food provision guidelines for childcare services across the eight Australian jurisdictions and
- to explore perspectives and to determine the level of agreement amongst early childhood nutrition experts for alignment of jurisdictional childcare food provision guidelines with the Australian Dietary Guidelines.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
2.2. Phase 1 Mapping of Jurisdictional Food Provision Guidelines for Childcare
2.2.1. Data Source
2.2.2. Data Extraction
2.3. Phase 2 Surveying of Early Childhood Nutrition Experts
3.1. Phase 1 Mapping of Jurisdictional Food Provision Guidelines for Childcare
3.1.1. Quantity of Food Provision
3.1.2. Quality of Food Provision
3.2. Phase 2 Surveying of Early Childhood Nutrition Experts
3.2.1. Participant Characteristics
3.2.2. Views on Food Provision Aligning with at Least 50% of ADG Serves for 2–3-Year-Old Age Group
3.2.3. Views on Five Food Group Recommendations Aligning with 50% of ADG for the 2–3-Year-Old Age Group
3.2.4. Serves: Terminology and Size
3.2.5. Recommended Frequency of Specific Food Types
3.2.6. Provision of Discretionary Items
“Cakes or muffins may contain fruit/vegetable and be made low added sugar or fat.”
“Biscuits, cakes and slices are good options to learn to cook for young children in this type of setting.”
Conflicts of Interest
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|Jurisdiction a||50% of ADG (2013)||ACT||NSW||NT||QLD||SA (and WA-SNAC)||TAS||VIC|
|Source||Nutrition Australia, ACT Government; 2016 ||Caring for Children, Ministry of Health NSW; 2014 ||NT Government; 2016 ||Nutrition Australia Qld, Food Foundations; 2018 ||Start Right, Eat Right, DHHS; 2012 ||Move Well, Eat Well, DHHS; 2016 ||Nutrition Australia Vic; 2012 |
|Age group covered by recommendations||2–3 years||2–3 years b||2–5 years||≤3 years b||2–3 years b||>6 months||1–5 years||1–5 years|
|Daily intake proportion to be provided in care||50%, not further specified||“at least 50% of the recommended dietary intakes (RDI) for all nutrients”||No information provided||“at least 50% of ADG core food group requirements”||“at least 50% of daily nutritional requirements”, “50% of the serve recommendations of the AGHE”||“half their daily nutrition requirements”||50%, not further specified|
|Meals/snacks||1 main meal + 2 mid-meals||1 main meal + 2 mid-meals||1 main meal + 2 mid-meals||1 main meal + 2 mid-meals||1 main meal + 2 mid-meals||1 main meal + 2 mid-meals||1 main meal + 2 mid-meals|
|Serve sizes||ADG||ADG||ADG||ADG||ADG—fruit; veg; grains|
Child c—dairy; meat
Child c—dairy; meat; fruit
|Vegetables/legumes||1.25 serves = 95 g of cooked vegetables||1.25 = 95 g cooked||2 = 150 g cooked||2 = 150 g||1.25 = 95 g cooked||1 = 75 g cooked||1 to 2 = 75–150 g fresh/cooked||1 to 1.5 = 75–110 g fresh/cooked|
|Fruit||0.5 serves = 75 g fresh fruit||0.5 = 75 g apple||1 = 150 g apple||1 = 150 g||0.5 = 75 g apple||0.5 = 75 g apple||0.5 = 75 g apple||1 child serve c|
(0.5 ADG) = 75 g fresh/canned/cooked
|Grain (cereal) foods||2 serves = 2 slices of bread; 150 g cooked rice/pasta/noodles||2 = 2 slices bread||2 = 2 slices bread||2 = 2 slices bread||2 = 2 slices bread||2 = 2 slices bread||2 = 2 slices bread||2 = 2 slices bread|
|Meats/alternatives||0.5 serves = 50 g raw or 33 g cooked lean meat or 1 large egg||0.5 = 33 g cooked lean meat||0.75 = 75 g raw beef||0.5 = 50 g raw beef||0.5 = 50 g raw beef||1 child serve c|
(0.5 ADG) = 50 g raw beef
|0.5 = 50 g raw beef||1 child serve c|
(0.5 ADG) = 50 g raw beef
|Dairy/alternatives||0.75 serves = 185 mL milk; 30 g hard cheese||0.75 = 185 mL milk||1 = 250 mL milk||1 = 250 mL milk||0.75 = 185 mL milk||2 child serves c = 200 mL milk; 30 g cheese||1 = 250 mL milk||2 child serves c = 200 mL milk; 30 g hard cheese|
|Fats/oils||0.25 serves = 2–2.5 g/day unsaturated spreads/oils||No information provided||Classified as discretionary||Classified as discretionary||No information provided||Maximum 7 g/day||No information provided||Classified as discretionary|
|Discretionary d||0 serves f||No information provided e||Should not be included on service menu e||Not to be consumed on a daily basis||≤1/day||≤2/fortnight, for flavouring||Should not be offered on the menu e||Should not be included in daily menu e|
|Characteristic||%||n (of 49)|
|Australian Capital Territory||6%||3|
|New South Wales||31%||15|
|Currently involved in policy||24%||12|
|Previously involved in policy||18%||9|
|Not involved in policy||61%||30|
|Food Item||Never||Occasionally||Once per Fortnight||Once per Week||Twice per Week||Three Times per Week||Every Day|
|High fibre grains/cereals||0||0||0||0||0||1||49|
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Spence, A.; Love, P.; Byrne, R.; Wakem, A.; Matwiejczyk, L.; Devine, A.; Golley, R.; Sambell, R. Childcare Food Provision Recommendations Vary across Australia: Jurisdictional Comparison and Nutrition Expert Perspectives. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6793. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186793
Spence A, Love P, Byrne R, Wakem A, Matwiejczyk L, Devine A, Golley R, Sambell R. Childcare Food Provision Recommendations Vary across Australia: Jurisdictional Comparison and Nutrition Expert Perspectives. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6793. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186793Chicago/Turabian Style
Spence, Alison, Penelope Love, Rebecca Byrne, Amy Wakem, Louisa Matwiejczyk, Amanda Devine, Rebecca Golley, and Ros Sambell. 2020. "Childcare Food Provision Recommendations Vary across Australia: Jurisdictional Comparison and Nutrition Expert Perspectives" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6793. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186793