Next Article in Journal
COD19 and COD20: An Italian Experience of Active Home Surveillance in COVID-19 Patients
Next Article in Special Issue
Early-Life Exposure to Environmental Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of Available Evidence
Previous Article in Journal
Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines and Colorectal Cancer Survival: A Retrospective High-Resolution Population-Based Study in Spain
Previous Article in Special Issue
Nitrogen-Dioxide Remains a Valid Air Quality Indicator
 
 
Article

It Takes Time to Unravel the Ecology of War in Gaza, Palestine: Long-Term Changes in Maternal, Newborn and Toddlers’ Heavy Metal Loads, and Infant and Toddler Developmental Milestones in the Aftermath of the 2014 Military Attacks

1
Faculty of Medicine, Islamic University of Gaza, Gaza, Palestine
2
Doha Institute for Graduate Studies, School of Social Sciences and Humanities, Al Tarfa Street, Zone 70, Doha, P.O. Box 200592, Qatar
3
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, 33014 Tampere, Finland
4
Association for Scientific Research, Nwrg-onlus, 16123 Genova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6698; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186698
Received: 28 July 2020 / Revised: 5 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 14 September 2020
Toxicant, teratogen and carcinogen metal war remnants negatively affect human health. The current study analyzes, first, the persistence of heavy metal contamination in newborn hair in four cohorts across time in Gaza Palestine; second, the change in mothers’ and infants’ heavy metal contamination from birth to toddlerhood; and third, the impact of heavy metal contamination on infants’ and toddlers’ growth and development. The hair of newborns was analyzed for twelve heavy metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS) in cohorts recruited at delivery in 2011, 2015, 2016, and 2018–2019. In the 2015 cohort, mothers’ hair samples were taken at delivery, and toddlers and mothers hair were also analyzed 18 months later. Growth levels of infants at six months and toddlers at 18 months were assessed according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards according to a mother report and pediatric check-up, respectively. 1. The level of metal contamination in utero was persistently high across 8 years, 2011, 2015, 2016, 2019, following three major military attacks (2009, 2012, 2014). 2. The 2015 cohort babies exposed in utero to attacks in 2014 at six months showed association of high load at birth in mother of arsenic and in newborn of barium with underweight, of barium and molybdenum in newborn with stunting. 3. Eighteen months after birth, toddlers had a higher level of metals in hairs than when they were born, while, in their mothers, such levels were similar to those at delivery, confirming persistence in the environment of war remnants. Underweight and stunting, both in infants and toddlers, were higher than reported for previous years, as well as being progressive within the cohort. Severe environmental factors, metal contamination and food insecurity put Gaza’s infant health at risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal war remnant; metal load in infant and in utero; developmental milestones; child growth restriction heavy metal war remnant; metal load in infant and in utero; developmental milestones; child growth restriction
MDPI and ACS Style

Baraquoni, N.a.; Qouta, S.R.; Vänskä, M.; Diab, S.Y.; Punamäki, R.-L.; Manduca, P. It Takes Time to Unravel the Ecology of War in Gaza, Palestine: Long-Term Changes in Maternal, Newborn and Toddlers’ Heavy Metal Loads, and Infant and Toddler Developmental Milestones in the Aftermath of the 2014 Military Attacks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6698. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186698

AMA Style

Baraquoni Na, Qouta SR, Vänskä M, Diab SY, Punamäki R-L, Manduca P. It Takes Time to Unravel the Ecology of War in Gaza, Palestine: Long-Term Changes in Maternal, Newborn and Toddlers’ Heavy Metal Loads, and Infant and Toddler Developmental Milestones in the Aftermath of the 2014 Military Attacks. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6698. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186698

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baraquoni, Nabil al, Samir R. Qouta, Mervi Vänskä, Safwat Y. Diab, Raija-Leena Punamäki, and Paola Manduca. 2020. "It Takes Time to Unravel the Ecology of War in Gaza, Palestine: Long-Term Changes in Maternal, Newborn and Toddlers’ Heavy Metal Loads, and Infant and Toddler Developmental Milestones in the Aftermath of the 2014 Military Attacks" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6698. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186698

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop