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Article

Upper Lip Horizontal Line: Characteristics of a Dynamic Facial Line

1
Department of Orthodontics, the Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
2
Department of Oral Rehabilitation, the Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
3
Department of Oral Biology, the Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
4
The Dan David Center for Human Evolution and Biohistory Research, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186672
Received: 18 August 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 13 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Modern Patient-Centered Dental Care)
Background: Upper lip appearance received major attention with the introduction of diverse treatment modalities, including lip augmentation, rhinoplasty surgery, and dental treatment designed to support the upper lip. Our objectives were to define the prevalence and characteristics of the upper lip horizontal line (ULHL), which is a dynamic line appearing during a smile, in relation to gender, malocclusions, aging, and facial morphology. Methods: First, the prevalence and gender distribution of ULHL was examined from standardized en-face imaging at full smile of 643 randomly selected patients. Second, cephalometric and dental cast model analyses were made for 97 consecutive patients divided into three age groups. Results: ULHL appears in 13.8% of the population examined, and prevailed significantly more in females (78%). The prevalence of ULHL was not related to age nor to malocclusion. Patients presenting ULHL showed shorter upper lip and deeper lip sulcus. The skeletal pattern showed longer mid-face, shorter lower facial height and greater prevalence of a gummy smile. Conclusions: Female patients with short upper lip, concavity of the upper lip, and gummy smile are more likely to exhibit ULHL. The ULHL is not age-related and can be identified in children and young adults. Therefore, it should be considered when selecting diverse treatment modalities involving the upper lip. View Full-Text
Keywords: upper lip; smile; sexual dimorphism; facial morphology; aging; wrinkle upper lip; smile; sexual dimorphism; facial morphology; aging; wrinkle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vardimon, A.D.; Shpack, N.; Wasserstein, A.; Skyllouriotou, M.; Strauss, M.; Geron, S.; Sadan, N.; Levartovsky, S.; Sarig, R. Upper Lip Horizontal Line: Characteristics of a Dynamic Facial Line. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6672. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186672

AMA Style

Vardimon AD, Shpack N, Wasserstein A, Skyllouriotou M, Strauss M, Geron S, Sadan N, Levartovsky S, Sarig R. Upper Lip Horizontal Line: Characteristics of a Dynamic Facial Line. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6672. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186672

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vardimon, Alexander D., Nir Shpack, Atalia Wasserstein, Marilena Skyllouriotou, Morris Strauss, Silvia Geron, Noa Sadan, Shifra Levartovsky, and Rachel Sarig. 2020. "Upper Lip Horizontal Line: Characteristics of a Dynamic Facial Line" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 18: 6672. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186672

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