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Open AccessArticle

Body Water Content and Morphological Characteristics Modify Bioimpedance Vector Patterns in Volleyball, Soccer, and Rugby Players

1
Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, 47921 Rimini, Italy
2
Exercise and Health Laboratory, CIPER, Faculdade Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, 1499-002 Cruz Quebrada, Portugal
3
Department of Biomedical Science, University of Padova, 35100 Padova, Italy
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Metabolism, Nutrition, and Exercise Laboratory, Physical Education and Sports Center, Londrina State University, 86057 Londrina, Brazil
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Department of clinical research and development, Akern Ltd., 56121 Pisa, Italy
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Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, Hyslop Sports Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
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Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186604
Received: 3 August 2020 / Revised: 2 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
Background: Bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) is a widely used method based on the interpretation of raw bioimpedance parameters to evaluate body composition and cellular health in athletes. However, several variables contribute to influencing BIVA patterns by militating against an optimal interpretation of the data. This study aims to explore the association of morphological characteristics with bioelectrical properties in volleyball, soccer, and rugby players. Methods: 164 athletes belonging to professional teams (age 26.2 ± 4.4 yrs; body mass index (BMI) 25.4 ± 2.4 kg/m2) underwent bioimpedance and anthropometric measurements. Bioelectric resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were standardized for the athlete’s height and used to plot the vector in the R-Xc graph according to the BIVA approach. Total body water (TBW), phase angle (PhA), and somatotype were determined from bioelectrical and anthropometric data. Results: No significant difference (p > 0.05) for age and for age at the start of competition among the athletes was found. Athletes divided into groups of TBW limited by quartiles showed significant differences in the mean vector position in the R-Xc graph (p < 0.001), where a higher content of body fluids resulted in a shorter vector and lower positioning in the graph. Furthermore, six categories of somatotypes were identified, and the results of bivariate and partial correlation analysis highlighted a direct association between PhA and mesomorphy (r = 0.401, p < 0.001) while showing an inverse correlation with ectomorphy (r = −0.416, p < 0.001), even adjusted for age. On the contrary, no association was observed between PhA and endomorphy (r = 0.100, p = 0.471). Conclusions: Body fluid content affects the vector length in the R-Xc graph. In addition, the lateral displacement of the vector, which determines the PhA, can be modified by the morphological characteristics of the athlete. In particular, higher PhA values are observed in subjects with a high mesomorphic component, whereas lower values are found when ectomorphy is dominant. View Full-Text
Keywords: body composition; BIVA; phase angle; R-Xc graph; somatotype; total body water; vector length body composition; BIVA; phase angle; R-Xc graph; somatotype; total body water; vector length
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Campa, F.; Silva, A.M.; Matias, C.N.; Monteiro, C.P.; Paoli, A.; Nunes, J.P.; Talluri, J.; Lukaski, H.; Toselli, S. Body Water Content and Morphological Characteristics Modify Bioimpedance Vector Patterns in Volleyball, Soccer, and Rugby Players. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6604.

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