Next Article in Journal
Land Cover Classification by Integrating NDVI Time Series and GIS Data to Evaluate Water Circulation in Aso Caldera, Japan
Next Article in Special Issue
Relationships between Exercise Modality and Activity Restriction, Quality of Life, and Hematopoietic Profile in Korean Breast Cancer Survivors
Previous Article in Journal
Workplace Violence in Outpatient Physician Clinics: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Aerobic and Anaerobic Fatigue Exercises on Postural Control and Recovery Time in Female Soccer Players
Open AccessArticle

Body Water Content and Morphological Characteristics Modify Bioimpedance Vector Patterns in Volleyball, Soccer, and Rugby Players

Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, 47921 Rimini, Italy
Exercise and Health Laboratory, CIPER, Faculdade Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, 1499-002 Cruz Quebrada, Portugal
Department of Biomedical Science, University of Padova, 35100 Padova, Italy
Metabolism, Nutrition, and Exercise Laboratory, Physical Education and Sports Center, Londrina State University, 86057 Londrina, Brazil
Department of clinical research and development, Akern Ltd., 56121 Pisa, Italy
Department of Kinesiology and Public Health Education, Hyslop Sports Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6604;
Received: 3 August 2020 / Revised: 2 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
Background: Bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) is a widely used method based on the interpretation of raw bioimpedance parameters to evaluate body composition and cellular health in athletes. However, several variables contribute to influencing BIVA patterns by militating against an optimal interpretation of the data. This study aims to explore the association of morphological characteristics with bioelectrical properties in volleyball, soccer, and rugby players. Methods: 164 athletes belonging to professional teams (age 26.2 ± 4.4 yrs; body mass index (BMI) 25.4 ± 2.4 kg/m2) underwent bioimpedance and anthropometric measurements. Bioelectric resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) were standardized for the athlete’s height and used to plot the vector in the R-Xc graph according to the BIVA approach. Total body water (TBW), phase angle (PhA), and somatotype were determined from bioelectrical and anthropometric data. Results: No significant difference (p > 0.05) for age and for age at the start of competition among the athletes was found. Athletes divided into groups of TBW limited by quartiles showed significant differences in the mean vector position in the R-Xc graph (p < 0.001), where a higher content of body fluids resulted in a shorter vector and lower positioning in the graph. Furthermore, six categories of somatotypes were identified, and the results of bivariate and partial correlation analysis highlighted a direct association between PhA and mesomorphy (r = 0.401, p < 0.001) while showing an inverse correlation with ectomorphy (r = −0.416, p < 0.001), even adjusted for age. On the contrary, no association was observed between PhA and endomorphy (r = 0.100, p = 0.471). Conclusions: Body fluid content affects the vector length in the R-Xc graph. In addition, the lateral displacement of the vector, which determines the PhA, can be modified by the morphological characteristics of the athlete. In particular, higher PhA values are observed in subjects with a high mesomorphic component, whereas lower values are found when ectomorphy is dominant. View Full-Text
Keywords: body composition; BIVA; phase angle; R-Xc graph; somatotype; total body water; vector length body composition; BIVA; phase angle; R-Xc graph; somatotype; total body water; vector length
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Campa, F.; Silva, A.M.; Matias, C.N.; Monteiro, C.P.; Paoli, A.; Nunes, J.P.; Talluri, J.; Lukaski, H.; Toselli, S. Body Water Content and Morphological Characteristics Modify Bioimpedance Vector Patterns in Volleyball, Soccer, and Rugby Players. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6604.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop