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Workplace Violence in Outpatient Physician Clinics: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3
Department of Population Health, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
4
Threat Analysis Group, LLC, Houston, TX 77407, USA
5
Ned Levine & Associates, Houston, TX 77025, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186587
Received: 26 June 2020 / Revised: 1 September 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
Workplace violence (WPV) has been extensively studied in hospitals, yet little is known about WPV in outpatient physician clinics. These settings and work tasks may present different risk factors for WPV compared to hospitals, including the handling/exchange of cash, and being remotely located without security presence. We conducted a systematic literature review to describe what is currently known about WPV in outpatient physician clinics. Six literature databases were searched and reference lists from included articles published from 2000–2019. Thirteen quantitative and five qualitative manuscripts were included which all focused on patient/family-perpetrated violence in outpatient physician clinics. No studies examined other violence types (e.g., worker-on-worker; burglary). The overall prevalence of Type II violence ranged from 9.5% to 74.6%, with the most common form being verbal abuse (42.1–94.3%), followed by threat of assault (14.0–57.4%), bullying (2.5–5.7%), physical assault, (0.5–15.9%) and sexual harassment/assault (0.2–9.3%). Worker consequences included reduced work performance, anger, and depression. Most workers did not receive training on how to manage a violent patient. More work is needed to examine the prevalence and risk factors of WPV in outpatient physician clinics for purposes of informing prevention efforts in these settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: violence; workplace violence; workplace aggression; primary care; outpatient physician clinic violence; workplace violence; workplace aggression; primary care; outpatient physician clinic
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Pompeii, L.; Benavides, E.; Pop, O.; Rojas, Y.; Emery, R.; Delclos, G.; Markham, C.; Oluyomi, A.; Vellani, K.; Levine, N. Workplace Violence in Outpatient Physician Clinics: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6587.

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