Implementation Models of Compassionate Communities and Compassionate Cities at the End of Life: A Systematic Review
- Models from the health services to the community (top-down approach).
- Models from community participation through the development of actions and events that involve communities in the promotion of their health (bottom-up approach).
- Models from organizations and community participation that ensure that population needs and desires are covered by the community’s impulse and offer tools and techniques to assess these needs and propose solutions.
- Has local health policies that recognize compassion as an ethical imperative.
- Meets the special needs of elders, those living with life-threatening illnesses, and those living with loss.
- Has a strong commitment to social and cultural differences.
- Involves grief and palliative care services in local government policy and planning.
- Offers its inhabitants access to a wider variety of supportive experiences, interactions and communication.
- Promotes and celebrates reconciliation with indigenous peoples and memory of other important community losses.
- Provides easy access to grief and palliative care services.
- Death, dying and bereavement would cease to be taboo subjects and would become more normalized within society.
- People’s expectations of death and dying will change, as well as how death will be managed.
- Palliative care will be re-oriented, supporting health and social care staff to work with the community in providing care to those at the end of life and their loved ones.
- How many end of life Compassionate Communities and Cities development models exist?
- What are their methods, processes and measures to allow the intervention assessment?
- Could we compare different degrees of development of Compassionate Communities and Cities in different countries and organizations?
2. Materials and Methods
2.2. Search Strategy
2.3. Study Eligibility Criteria
2.4. Type of Studies
2.5. Quality Assessment
2.6. Screening and Data Extraction
- Does the article discuss Compassionate Communities and Cities at the end of life?
- Do they regard the development model of Compassionate Communities and Cities?
- Do they show the phases of development or standards?
- Are the development experiences and results of Compassionate Communities and Cities discussed?
- Is it a pilot study?
- Is the development method described?
- Do they describe tools and resources used to develop Compassionate Communities and Cities?
- Was it developed from public policies in palliative care?
2.7. Data Analysis
- Objectives: What do they want to achieve at city, organization, country level?
- Scope: What is the scope or coverage?
- Development models How do they do it?
- Degree of development: pilot, initial or consolidated
- Standards: Are there goals to be achieved? What are the standards to achieve them?
- Tools, resources, evaluation models and analysis of results.
3.1. Compassionate Community or Cities at the End of Life Development Models (Theme 1)
3.2. Evaluation Models of Compassionate Communities and Cities: Indicators, Standards or Data That Allow Evaluating the Organizations and Resources (Theme 2)
- Compassionate Communities and Cities evaluation models/ systems.
- Evaluation of specific Compassionate Communities and Cities programs.
- Evaluation of compassion practice.
3.2.1. Compassionate Communities and Cities Evaluation Models/Systems
- Overarching Structures: Patient and Family-Centered Care,
- Overarching Values: Empathy, Sharing, Respect, Partnership.
- Process indicators: Communication, Shared decision-making, Goal setting;
- Results indicators: organizational development and satisfaction.
3.2.2. Compassionate Communities and Cities Evaluation Models/ Systems
- Providers underwent semi-structured telephone interviews on aspects related to Compassionate Care Benefit usefulness, its access facilitators and barriers; experiences related to recommending the Compassionate Care Benefit to potential applicants and suggestions for program improvement .
- The visibility of the program: web, marketing materials, brochures, awareness campaigns, etc.
- Citizen participation: community groups, volunteering, conversation groups, workshops, etc.
- The social care model: Community mentors, community partners, voluntary community mentors recruited and trained, community mentors advertised in the designated areas and with all appropriate service providers.
3.2.3. Compassionate Communities and Cities Evaluation Models/Systems
3.3. Compassionate Communities and Cities: Tools, Protocols or Information Systems (Theme 3)
Conflicts of Interest
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|(Terminal Care OR Palliative Care OR Hospice Care OR Hospices) AND|
|(Community networks OR Community health planning OR Community participation OR Social supports OR Volunteers OR Social network) AND|
|(Governments OR policymaker OR health and social policy OR public policy) AND|
|(Empathy OR Compassion) AND|
|(Model OR Organizational OR Program development OR Standards OR Impact OR Evaluation OR measure OR outcome) AND|
|(Efficiency OR effectiveness OR efficacy OR impact OR excellence OR referral)|
|Type of Documents|
|Information Contained in these Types of Documents|
|Technical Criteria for the Search|
|Types of Studies|
|First Author Year:|
|Document (select X)|
|National strategies, Framework Programs, Strategic Plans and Reports,|
|Consensus documents of associations, institutions, groups of professionals, scientific societies, expert panels, etc. related to the theme.|
|Reports and studies evaluating the results of the development of Compassionate Communities and Compassionate Cities.|
|Resolutions and political reports,|
|Books, White papers,|
|Tools and guides for program evaluation and measurement of indicators,|
|Grey literature: theses, books, book chapters.|
|Type of Study (select X)|
|Descriptive, retrospective and / or prospective studies|
|Case study, ethnographic study, grounded theory study.|
|Risk of Bias Assessment (Select X)|
|Discuss articles about compassionate communities at the end of life?|
|Do they express Compassionate Communities and cities development models?|
|Do they expose development phases or standards?|
|Are development experiences and results discussed?|
|Are these pilot studies?|
|Is the development method described?|
|Do they describe tools and resources to develop Compassionate Communities and cities?|
|Is it development from public policies in palliative care?|
|Accepted (Select X)|
|Articles or other types of documents incomplete or in the process of being drawn up,|
|Documents that do not include information related to the object of the search,|
|Documents in other languages than English and Spanish.|
|Information Contained (Select X)|
|Models of community development and compassionate cities at the end of life.|
|Evaluation models of Compassionate Communities and Compassionate Cities.|
|Indicators, standards, or data that allow evaluating the organizations and resources.|
|Tools and information systems that allow the evaluation of Compassionate Communities and Compassionate Cities.|
|National regulations and public health models that establish the strategic lines for the development of communities and compassionate cities.|
|Dimension (What is the scope? coverage?)|
|Objective (What do you want to achieve at city, organization, country level?)|
|Development model (How do they do it?)|
|Degree of development (what stage are they in?)|
|Standards (Are there goals to be achieved? What are the standards for achieving this?)|
|Tools and resources.|
|Models of evaluation, reporting and analysis of results.|
|Narrative Summary of the Main Results|
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Librada-Flores, S.; Nabal-Vicuña, M.; Forero-Vega, D.; Muñoz-Mayorga, I.; Guerra-Martín, M.D. Implementation Models of Compassionate Communities and Compassionate Cities at the End of Life: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6271. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176271
Librada-Flores S, Nabal-Vicuña M, Forero-Vega D, Muñoz-Mayorga I, Guerra-Martín MD. Implementation Models of Compassionate Communities and Compassionate Cities at the End of Life: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(17):6271. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176271Chicago/Turabian Style
Librada-Flores, Silvia, María Nabal-Vicuña, Diana Forero-Vega, Ingrid Muñoz-Mayorga, and María Dolores Guerra-Martín. 2020. "Implementation Models of Compassionate Communities and Compassionate Cities at the End of Life: A Systematic Review" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 17: 6271. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176271