Next Article in Journal
Perceptions, Predictors of and Motivation for Quitting among Smokers from Six European Countries from 2016 to 2018: Findings from EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys
Previous Article in Journal
Height of Male Prisoners in Santiago de Chile during the Nitrate Era: The Penalty of being Unskilled, Illiterate, Illegitimate and Mapuche
Open AccessArticle

The WHO and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) Indicators for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene and Their Association with Linear Growth in Children 6 to 23 Months in East Africa

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176262
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 24 August 2020 / Accepted: 26 August 2020 / Published: 28 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
The slow decrease in child stunting rates in East Africa warrants further research to identify the influence of contributing factors such as water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). This study investigated the association between child length and WASH conditions using the recently revised WHO and UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) indicators. Data from households with infants and young children aged 6–23 months from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were used. Associations for each country between WASH conditions and length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) were analyzed using linear regression. Stunting rates were high (>20%) reaching 45% in Burundi. At the time of the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), more than half of the households in most countries did not have basic or safely managed WASH indicators. Models predicted significantly higher LAZ for children living in households with safely managed drinking water compared to those living in households drinking from surface water in Kenya (β = 0.13, p < 0.01) and Tanzania (β = 0.08, p < 0.05) after adjustment with child, maternal, and household covariates. Children living in households with improved sanitation facilities not shared with other households were also taller than children living in households practicing open defecation in Ethiopia (β = 0.07, p < 0.01) and Tanzania (β = 0.08, p < 0.01) in the adjusted models. All countries need improved WASH conditions to reduce pathogen and helminth contamination. Targeting adherence to the highest JMP indicators would support efforts to reduce child stunting in East Africa. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; sanitation; hygiene; stunting; East Africa water quality; sanitation; hygiene; stunting; East Africa
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rakotomanana, H.; Komakech, J.J.; Walters, C.N.; Stoecker, B.J. The WHO and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) Indicators for Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene and Their Association with Linear Growth in Children 6 to 23 Months in East Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6262.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop