Next Article in Journal
Postural Control during Progressively Increased Balance-Task Difficulty in Athletes with Unilateral Transfemoral Amputation: Effect of Ocular Mobility and Visuomotor Processing
Next Article in Special Issue
Mental Health of Chinese Online Networkers under COVID-19: A Sociological Analysis of Survey Data
Previous Article in Journal
Attitudes and Consumer Behavior toward Foods Offered in Staff Canteens
Previous Article in Special Issue
How Much Support Is There for the Recommendations Made to the General Population during Confinement? A Study during the First Three Days of the COVID–19 Quarantine in Spain
Article Menu

Article Menu


COVID-19 Home Confinement Negatively Impacts Social Participation and Life Satisfaction: A Worldwide Multicenter Study

by 1,2,*, 3,4, 3,4, 4,5, 4, 6, 7, 6, 6, 6, 8,9, 8,9, 3,4, 3,10, 2, 11,12, 13, 13, 13,14, 15, 16, 17, 17, 18, 19,20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 3, 29, 30, 31, 7, 32, 32, 33, 33,34, 4, 4, 3, 13, 35, 36, 4, 37, 38, 39, 40, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 46, 46, 14,47, 48, 49, 40, 50, 51, 52,†, 53,†, 1,† and 1add Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Institute of Sport Science, Otto-von-Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
Research Laboratory, Molecular Bases of Human Pathology, LR12ES17, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
Research Unit: Physical Activity, Sport, and Health, UR18JS01, National Observatory of Sport, Tunis 1003, Tunisia
High Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
Research Laboratory: Education, Motricity, Sport and Health, EM2S, LR19JS01, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
Institute of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
Higher Institute of Computer Science and Multimedia of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
Research Group Neuroprotection, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Leipziger Str. 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
Medical Faculty, Department of Neurology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, University of Gafsa, Gafsa 2112, Tunisia
Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 20550-170, Brazil
Departamento de Fisioterapia, Faculdade Bezerra de Araújo, Rio de Janeiro 23052-180, Brazil
Department of Psychology, Health & Technology, University of Twente, 7522 Enschede, The Netherlands
Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 20123 Milan, Italy
Laboratório de Fisiologia do Exercício, Estácio de Sá University, Rio de Janeiro 20261-063, Brazil
Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Management, Canadian University of Dubai, 1st Interchange Sheikh Zayed Rd, Dubai, UAE PO Box 117781, UAE
Faculty of Social Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin 34148-96818, Iran
UVHC, DeVisu, Valenciennes, LIRTES-EA 7313, Université Paris Est Créteil Val de Marne, 94000 Créteil, France
Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Postgraduate School of Public Health, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy
Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (LIAM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
Department of Psychology and Sport Science, University of Gießen, 35394 Gießen, Germany
Sports Performance Division, National Sports Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
Department of Sports Biomechanics, Moscow Center of Advanced Sport Technologies, 129272 Moscow, Russia
UFR STAPS, UPL, Paris Nanterre University, 92000 Nanterre, France
Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, 17674 Athens, Greece
Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Thessaly, 382 21 Volos, Greece
Consultant in Internal Medicine and Diabetes, MGM Muthoot Hospitals Pathanamthitta, Kerala 689645, India
Consultant Family Physician, CRAFT Hospital and Research Centre, Kodungallur, Kerala 680664, India
Institute of Social Science, Otto-von-Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough E11 3TU, UK
Clinical Excellence Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Computer Science Department, University of Toulouse, IRIT-INP-ENSEEIHT (UMR 5505), BP 7122 Toulouse, France
Faculty of Physical Education, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt
Institute for Sports and Sports Science, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, 76131 Karlsruher, Germany
Department of Health Sciences and Kinesiology, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30458, USA
PharmD, BCBS, PharmIAD, Inc., Savannah, GA 30458, USA
FundeSalud, Dept. of Health and Social Services, Government of Extremadura, 06800 Merida, Spain
The E-Senior Association, 75020 Paris, France
Department of Health Psychology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9712 Groningen, The Netherlands
Sports and Rehabilitation Medicine, Ulm University Hospital, Leimgrubenweg 14, 89075 Ulm, Germany
Department of Exercise Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163, Jordan
Faculty of Physical Education, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
Digital Research Centre of Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
Laboratory of Neuropsychophysiology, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Av. das Forças Armadas, 1649-026 Lisbon, Portugal
Institute for Kinesiology Research, Science and Research Centre Koper, Garibaldijeva 1, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
Applied Technology for Neuro-Psychology Lab, I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, 20149 Milan, Italy
Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, 00-809 Warsaw, Poland
Institute for Social Medicine and Health Economy, Otto-von-Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
Hôpital Farhat Hached de Sousse, Laboratoire de Recherche “Insuffisance Cardiaque’’, Université de Sousse, Sousse LR12SP09, Tunisie
Exercise Science Research Center, Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
ASPETAR, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar and Laboratory “Sport Performance Optimization”, (CNMSS), ISSEP Ksar-Said, Manouba University, 2010 Manouba, Tunisia
Interdisciplinary Laboratory in Neurosciences, Physiology and Psychology: Physical Activity, Health and Learning (LINP2-2APS), UFR STAPS, UPL, Paris Nanterre University, 92000 Nanterre, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6237;
Received: 28 July 2020 / Revised: 24 August 2020 / Accepted: 25 August 2020 / Published: 27 August 2020
Public health recommendations and governmental measures during the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have enforced numerous restrictions on daily living including social distancing, isolation, and home confinement. While these measures are imperative to mitigate spreading of COVID-19, the impact of these restrictions on psychosocial health is undefined. Therefore, an international online survey was launched in April 2020 to elucidate the behavioral and lifestyle consequences of COVID-19 restrictions. This report presents the preliminary results from more than one thousand responders on social participation and life satisfaction. Methods: Thirty-five research organizations from Europe, North-Africa, Western Asia, and the Americas promoted the survey through their networks to the general society, in 7 languages (English, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, and Slovenian). Questions were presented in a differential format with questions related to responses “before” and “during” confinement conditions. Results: 1047 participations (54% women) from Asia (36%), Africa (40%), Europe (21%), and others (3%) were included in the analysis. Findings revealed psychosocial strain during the enforced COVID-19 home confinement. Large decreases (p < 0.001) in the amount of social activity through family (−58%), friends/neighbors (−44.9%), or entertainment (−46.7%) were triggered by the enforced confinement. These negative effects on social participation were also associated with lower life satisfaction (−30.5%) during the confinement period. Conversely, the social contact score through digital technologies significantly increased (p < 0.001) during the confinement period with more individuals (+24.8%) being socially connected through digital technology. Conclusion: These preliminary findings elucidate the risk of psychosocial strain during the early COVID-19 home confinement period in 2020. Therefore, in order to mitigate the negative psychosocial effects of home confinement, implementation of national strategies focused on promoting social inclusion through a technology-based solution is strongly suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: pandemic; public health; social participation; life satisfaction; COVID-19 pandemic; public health; social participation; life satisfaction; COVID-19
MDPI and ACS Style

Ammar, A.; Chtourou, H.; Boukhris, O.; Trabelsi, K.; Masmoudi, L.; Brach, M.; Bouaziz, B.; Bentlage, E.; How, D.; Ahmed, M.; Mueller, P.; Mueller, N.; Hsouna, H.; Aloui, A.; Hammouda, O.; Paineiras-Domingos, L.L.; Braakman-Jansen, A.; Wrede, C.; Bastoni, S.; Pernambuco, C.S.; Mataruna-Dos-Santos, L.J.; Taheri, M.; Irandoust, K.; Khacharem, A.; Bragazzi, N.L.; Strahler, J.; Washif, J.A.; Andreeva, A.; khoshnami, S.C.; Samara, E.; Zisi, V.; Sankar, P.; Ahmed, W.N.; Romdhani, M.; Delhey, J.; Bailey, S.J.; Bott, N.T.; Gargouri, F.; Chaari, L.; Batatia, H.; Ali, G.M.; Abdelkarim, O.; Jarraya, M.; Abed, K.E.; Souissi, N.; Gemert-Pijnen, L.V.; Riemann, B.L.; Riemann, L.; Moalla, W.; Gómez-Raja, J.; Epstein, M.; Sanderman, R.; Schulz, S.; Jerg, A.; Al-Horani, R.; Mansi, T.; Jmail, M.; Barbosa, F.; Ferreira-Santos, F.; Šimunič, B.; Pišot, R.; Pišot, S.; Gaggioli, A.; Zmijewski, P.; Apfelbacher, C.; Steinacker, J.; Saad, H.B.; Glenn, J.M.; Chamari, K.; Driss, T.; Hoekelmann, A.; on behalf of the ECLB-COVID19 Consortium. COVID-19 Home Confinement Negatively Impacts Social Participation and Life Satisfaction: A Worldwide Multicenter Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6237.

AMA Style

Ammar A, Chtourou H, Boukhris O, Trabelsi K, Masmoudi L, Brach M, Bouaziz B, Bentlage E, How D, Ahmed M, Mueller P, Mueller N, Hsouna H, Aloui A, Hammouda O, Paineiras-Domingos LL, Braakman-Jansen A, Wrede C, Bastoni S, Pernambuco CS, Mataruna-Dos-Santos LJ, Taheri M, Irandoust K, Khacharem A, Bragazzi NL, Strahler J, Washif JA, Andreeva A, khoshnami SC, Samara E, Zisi V, Sankar P, Ahmed WN, Romdhani M, Delhey J, Bailey SJ, Bott NT, Gargouri F, Chaari L, Batatia H, Ali GM, Abdelkarim O, Jarraya M, Abed KE, Souissi N, Gemert-Pijnen LV, Riemann BL, Riemann L, Moalla W, Gómez-Raja J, Epstein M, Sanderman R, Schulz S, Jerg A, Al-Horani R, Mansi T, Jmail M, Barbosa F, Ferreira-Santos F, Šimunič B, Pišot R, Pišot S, Gaggioli A, Zmijewski P, Apfelbacher C, Steinacker J, Saad HB, Glenn JM, Chamari K, Driss T, Hoekelmann A, on behalf of the ECLB-COVID19 Consortium. COVID-19 Home Confinement Negatively Impacts Social Participation and Life Satisfaction: A Worldwide Multicenter Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(17):6237.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ammar, Achraf, Hamdi Chtourou, Omar Boukhris, Khaled Trabelsi, Liwa Masmoudi, Michael Brach, Bassem Bouaziz, Ellen Bentlage, Daniella How, Mona Ahmed, Patrick Mueller, Notger Mueller, Hsen Hsouna, Asma Aloui, Omar Hammouda, Laisa L. Paineiras-Domingos, Annemarie Braakman-Jansen, Christian Wrede, Sophia Bastoni, Carlos S. Pernambuco, Leonardo J. Mataruna-Dos-Santos, Morteza Taheri, Khadijeh Irandoust, Aïmen Khacharem, Nicola L. Bragazzi, Jana Strahler, Jad A. Washif, Albina Andreeva, Samira C. khoshnami, Evangelia Samara, Vasiliki Zisi, Parasanth Sankar, Waseem N. Ahmed, Mohamed Romdhani, Jan Delhey, Stephen J. Bailey, Nicholas T. Bott, Faiez Gargouri, Lotfi Chaari, Hadj Batatia, Gamal M. Ali, Osama Abdelkarim, Mohamed Jarraya, Kais E. Abed, Nizar Souissi, Lisette V. Gemert-Pijnen, Bryan L. Riemann, Laurel Riemann, Wassim Moalla, Jonathan Gómez-Raja, Monique Epstein, Robbert Sanderman, Sebastian Schulz, Achim Jerg, Ramzi Al-Horani, Taiysir Mansi, Mohamed Jmail, Fernando Barbosa, Fernando Ferreira-Santos, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Saša Pišot, Andrea Gaggioli, Piotr Zmijewski, Christian Apfelbacher, Jürgen Steinacker, Helmi B. Saad, Jordan M. Glenn, Karim Chamari, Tarak Driss, Anita Hoekelmann, and on behalf of the ECLB-COVID19 Consortium. 2020. "COVID-19 Home Confinement Negatively Impacts Social Participation and Life Satisfaction: A Worldwide Multicenter Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 17: 6237.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop