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Article

Perceived and Real Aquatic Competence in Children from 6 to 10 Years Old

1
Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
2
Research Center in Sport Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
3
Health Sciences Investigation Center, University of Beira Interior, CICS-UBI, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
4
Department of Mathematics, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
5
Center of Mathematics and Applications, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
6
Department of Sport Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Guarda, 6300-035 Guarda, Portugal
7
Department of Sport Sciences, Exercise and Health, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176101
Received: 24 July 2020 / Revised: 12 August 2020 / Accepted: 19 August 2020 / Published: 21 August 2020
This study aimed to analyze the relationship between perceived aquatic competence (PAC) and real aquatic competence (RAC) in 6 to 10 year old children in skills identified as relevant for surviving an aquatic accident. The study sample consisted of 105 children (8.2 + 1.3 years old). Two age groups were examined separately [G1, 6 to 7 years (n = 53); G2, 8 to 10 years (n = 52)]. Children’s aquatic competence was evaluated twice for skills linked to the risk of drowning: Firstly, using a common swimsuit (simple condition) and secondly wearing a t-shirt (complex condition). The PAC was assessed by questionnaire interview. Pearson correlation coefficients, pairwise, and independent t-test comparisons were performed with a significance level of 5%. Similar levels of PAC were found among both age groups for all measured skills, excepted for breath control during swimming (p < 0.05). However, PAC differs significantly (p < 0.001) from RAC (in simple and complex conditions) only in G1. Correlations between PAC and RAC were modest for all measured skills in both age-groups. Significant differences were found between RAC in simple and complex conditions in both groups (p < 0.01). Age contributes to a higher perceived aquatic competence in skills related to the risk of drowning. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic skills; children; perceived competence; water safety; drowning prevention aquatic skills; children; perceived competence; water safety; drowning prevention
MDPI and ACS Style

Costa, A.M.; Frias, A.; Ferreira, S.S.; Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.J.; Garrido, N.D. Perceived and Real Aquatic Competence in Children from 6 to 10 Years Old. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6101. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176101

AMA Style

Costa AM, Frias A, Ferreira SS, Costa MJ, Silva AJ, Garrido ND. Perceived and Real Aquatic Competence in Children from 6 to 10 Years Old. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(17):6101. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176101

Chicago/Turabian Style

Costa, Aldo M., Alexandra Frias, Sandra S. Ferreira, Mario J. Costa, António J. Silva, and Nuno D. Garrido 2020. "Perceived and Real Aquatic Competence in Children from 6 to 10 Years Old" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 17: 6101. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176101

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