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Article

Associations of Self-Efficacy, Optimism, and Empathy with Psychological Health in Healthcare Volunteers

1
Italian Federation of Clown Doctors (FNC), via Rovescio 2185, 47023 Bagnile di Cesena (FC), Italy
2
Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 5, 40127 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 6001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17166001
Received: 13 July 2020 / Revised: 14 August 2020 / Accepted: 17 August 2020 / Published: 18 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Survey about Psychological Health)
Optimism and self-efficacy have been associated with psychological health. Empathy has also been found to have a unique role in community health volunteering and promote positive functioning. This study investigated whether self-efficacy and optimism were associated with psychological health in terms of psychological and subjective well-being in healthcare volunteers. It also investigated whether empathy added to the explanation of psychological health, over and above that accounted for by self-efficacy and optimism. A convenience sample of 160 Italian clown doctors volunteering in various hospitals completed self-report measures of self-efficacy, optimism, empathy, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy and optimism were associated with both outcomes and that aspects of empathy, such as others’ perspective taking and personal distress for others’ difficulties, added to the explanation of psychological health with opposite effects. The present study adds to previous research on the role of self-efficacy, optimism, and empathy for community health volunteers’ psychological health. It also offers suggestions regarding the training for this type of volunteer. View Full-Text
Keywords: volunteers; self-efficacy; optimism; empathy; psychological well-being; subjective well-being; hierarchical regression analysis volunteers; self-efficacy; optimism; empathy; psychological well-being; subjective well-being; hierarchical regression analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dionigi, A.; Casu, G.; Gremigni, P. Associations of Self-Efficacy, Optimism, and Empathy with Psychological Health in Healthcare Volunteers. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6001. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17166001

AMA Style

Dionigi A, Casu G, Gremigni P. Associations of Self-Efficacy, Optimism, and Empathy with Psychological Health in Healthcare Volunteers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(16):6001. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17166001

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dionigi, Alberto; Casu, Giulia; Gremigni, Paola. 2020. "Associations of Self-Efficacy, Optimism, and Empathy with Psychological Health in Healthcare Volunteers" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 16: 6001. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17166001

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