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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Conceptualizing Pathways of Sustainable Development in the Union for the Mediterranean Countries with an Empirical Intersection of Energy Consumption and Economic Growth

1
School of Finance and Economics, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
2
Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47909, USA
3
College of Finance, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155614
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 27 July 2020 / Published: 4 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Use and Environmental and Public Health)
The availability of sufficient and trustworthy energy services at the reasonable cost in a securely and environmentally friendly manner, and conventionality with economic and social development requirements, is an important factor of sustainable development (SD). Energy plays a significant role in eliminating poverty and increasing living standards. However, most of the present energy forms of energy supply and consumption are unsustainable. This paper analyzes the association between economic growth (EG), energy consumption (EC), and sustainable development (SD) among other economic factors. The sample of 14 developed and developing member states of the Union for the Mediterranean (UFM) was selected. To deal with the endogeneity issue, the system- generalized method of moment (GMM) model was employed. Moreover, panel co-integration, Granger causality tests, and robustness tests were employed to examine the long-run and short-run causality among variables of interest. The results confirmed the short-run dynamic association from sustainable development (SD) to energy consumption (EC), and economic growth (EG) to sustainable development (SD). Moreover, the results validated the presence of long-run equilibrium association in the equations of EC and sustainable development (SD). The findings of this study will be supportive for the policymakers to formulate sustainable energy policies to stimulate the economic growth (EG) in the way of sustainable development (SD) in the UFM countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy consumption (EC); sustainable development (SD); economic growth (EG) energy consumption (EC); sustainable development (SD); economic growth (EG)
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Latief, R.; Kong, Y.; Peng, Y.; Javeed, S.A. Conceptualizing Pathways of Sustainable Development in the Union for the Mediterranean Countries with an Empirical Intersection of Energy Consumption and Economic Growth. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5614.

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