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Open AccessArticle

Monitoring of the Organophosphate Pesticide Chlorpyrifos in Vegetable Samples from Local Markets in Northern Thailand by Developed Immunoassay

1
Research Institute for Health Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
3
Department of Entomology and Nematology and UCD Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
4
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4723; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134723
Received: 16 May 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide that is wildly used among farmers for crop protection. However, there are concerns regarding its contamination in the environment and food chain. In the present study, an in-house indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) specific for detecting chlorpyrifos is developed and validated against gas chromatography–flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) as the conventional method. The developed ic-ELISA was used for detecting chlorpyrifos residue in vegetable samples. The developed ic-ELISA showed good sensitivity to chlorpyrifos at an IC50 of 0.80 µg/kg, with low cross-reactivity to other organophosphate pesticides. The 160 samples were collected from local markets located in the Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, and Nan provinces in northern Thailand. The positive rate of chlorpyrifos residues in the vegetable samples was 33.8%, with the highest levels found in cucumbers, coriander, and morning glory, at 275, 145, and 35.3 µg/kg, respectively. The highest median levels of chlorpyrifos found in the detected samples were Chinese cabbage (332 μg/kg), cucumber (146.3 μg/kg) and Chinese Kale (26.95 μg/kg). The developed ic-ELISA is suitable for the rapid quantitation of chlorpyrifos residues. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorpyrifos residue; ic-ELISA; GC-FPD; northern Thailand chlorpyrifos residue; ic-ELISA; GC-FPD; northern Thailand
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Hongsibsong, S.; Prapamontol, T.; Xu, T.; Hammock, B.D.; Wang, H.; Chen, Z.-J.; Xu, Z.-L. Monitoring of the Organophosphate Pesticide Chlorpyrifos in Vegetable Samples from Local Markets in Northern Thailand by Developed Immunoassay. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4723.

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