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Review

Association between Pet Ownership and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Food and Life Science, School of Life and Environmental Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-city, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
2
Graduate School of Environmental Health, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-city, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
3
Center for Human and Animal Symbiosis Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-city, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
4
Faculty of Nutritional Science, Sagami Women’s University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Minami-ku, Sagamihara-city, Kanagawa 252-0383, Japan
5
Center for Science Information Services, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-city, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
6
Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-city, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this research.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103498
Received: 19 March 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 17 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Companion Animals on Public Health)
Obesity is a major risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Several studies have investigated the association between pet ownership and obesity, but the findings have been inconsistent. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis assessed the association between pet ownership and obesity. Using PubMed and Scopus, we overviewed the literature published until December 2019 and selected pertinent data for meta-analysis. Two independent reviewers extracted the data. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for obesity were calculated using the random-effects model with inverse-variance weighting. The 21 included articles were cross-sectional studies. Five publications (nine analyses) that reported adjusted RRs for BMI ≥ 25 were included in the meta-analysis. No significant association existed between pet ownership and obesity (pooled RR = 1.038; 95% CI, 0.922–1.167; I2 = 51.8%). After stratification by age group (children vs. adults), no significant association was detected (pooled RR = 0.844; 95% CI, 0.604–1.179; I2 = 64.1% vs. pooled RR = 1.099; 95% CI, 0.997–1.212; I2 = 25.2%). Similarly, no significant association was observed between dog ownership and obesity, indicating no association between pet ownership and obesity. However, no infer causation can be reported because all studies included in this meta-analysis were cross-sectional. Therefore, further prospective studies are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: pet ownership; companion animals; obesity pet ownership; companion animals; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miyake, K.; Kito, K.; Kotemori, A.; Sasaki, K.; Yamamoto, J.; Otagiri, Y.; Nagasawa, M.; Kuze-Arata, S.; Mogi, K.; Kikusui, T.; Ishihara, J. Association between Pet Ownership and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3498. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103498

AMA Style

Miyake K, Kito K, Kotemori A, Sasaki K, Yamamoto J, Otagiri Y, Nagasawa M, Kuze-Arata S, Mogi K, Kikusui T, Ishihara J. Association between Pet Ownership and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(10):3498. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103498

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miyake, Kenta, Kumiko Kito, Ayaka Kotemori, Kazuto Sasaki, Junpei Yamamoto, Yuko Otagiri, Miho Nagasawa, Sayaka Kuze-Arata, Kazutaka Mogi, Takefumi Kikusui, and Junko Ishihara. 2020. "Association between Pet Ownership and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 10: 3498. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103498

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