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Open AccessArticle

Personality Traits or Genetic Determinants—Which Strongly Influences E-Cigarette Users?

Independent Laboratory of Health Promotion of the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 11 Chlapowskiego St., 70-204 Szczecin, Poland
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Collegium Medicum, University of Zielona Góra, 28 Zyty St., 65-046 Zielona Góra, Poland
Department of Physiology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Powstańców Wlkp.72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
Neurophysiological Independent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, 42A Zwyciestwa St., 80-210 Gdansk, Poland
Faculty of Physical Culture, Gdańsk University of Physical Education and Sport, 80-853 Gdańsk, Poland
Department of Oral Surgery, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 72 Powstańców Wlkp. St., 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 365;
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 2 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 5 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes: Good and Bad Impacts)
Presently, a growing popularity of electronic cigarettes may be observed. Used as a means of obtaining nicotine they allow to substitute traditional cigarettes. The origins of substance use disorders are conditioned by dopaminergic signaling which influences motivational processes being elementary factors conditioning the process of learning and exhibiting goal-directed behaviors. The study concentrated on analysis of three polymorphisms located in the dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2) gene—rs1076560, rs1799732 and rs1079597 using the PCR method, personality traits determined with the Big Five Questionnaire, and anxiety measured with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. The study was conducted on a group of 394 volunteers, consisting e-cigarette users (n = 144) and controls (n = 250). Compared to the controls the case group subjects achieved significantly higher scores in regard to the STAI state and the trait scale, as well as the NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Openness scale. Likewise, in the case of the STAI state for DRD2 rs1076560 significant differences were found. Furthermore, while comparing the groups (e-cigarette users vs. controls) we noticed interactions for the NEO FFI Neuroticism and DRD2 rs1076560. The same was observed in the case of interactions significance while comparing groups (e-cigarette users vs. controls) for the STAI trait/scale and DRD2 rs1799732. Findings from this study demonstrate that psychological factors and genetic determinants should be analyzed simultaneously and comprehensively while considering groups of addicted patients. Since the use, and rapid increase in popularity, of electronic cigarettes has implications for public health, e-cigarette users should be studied holistically, especially younger groups of addicted and experimenting users. View Full-Text
Keywords: nicotine dependency; e-cigarettes; personality; dopamine nicotine dependency; e-cigarettes; personality; dopamine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grzywacz, A.; Suchanecka, A.; Chmielowiec, J.; Chmielowiec, K.; Szumilas, K.; Masiak, J.; Balwicki, Ł.; Michałowska-Sawczyn, M.; Trybek, G. Personality Traits or Genetic Determinants—Which Strongly Influences E-Cigarette Users? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 365.

AMA Style

Grzywacz A, Suchanecka A, Chmielowiec J, Chmielowiec K, Szumilas K, Masiak J, Balwicki Ł, Michałowska-Sawczyn M, Trybek G. Personality Traits or Genetic Determinants—Which Strongly Influences E-Cigarette Users? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(1):365.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grzywacz, Anna; Suchanecka, Aleksandra; Chmielowiec, Jolanta; Chmielowiec, Krzysztof; Szumilas, Kamila; Masiak, Jolanta; Balwicki, Łukasz; Michałowska-Sawczyn, Monika; Trybek, Grzegorz. 2020. "Personality Traits or Genetic Determinants—Which Strongly Influences E-Cigarette Users?" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 1: 365.

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