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Breast Cancer Gone Viral? Review of Possible Role of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Breast Cancer, and Related Opportunities for Cancer Prevention

1
School of Public Health, 16 Barker Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2
School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94122, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010209
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 15 December 2019 / Accepted: 23 December 2019 / Published: 27 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Primary Prevention of Breast Cancer)
This article is a literature review of research that explored the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in humans with breast cancer. It summarizes and evaluates these publications. This review does not provide absolute proof that BLV is a cause of breast cancer, but, based on well-respected epidemiologic criteria for causation, it does suggest that BLV infection could be a breast cancer risk factor. Any expansion of the current understanding of breast cancer risk factors may increase possibilities to implement primary prevention strategies. The environmental role that BLV-infected cattle may play as a reservoir for infectious BLV offers possibilities for reducing or eliminating potential transmission of BLV from cattle to humans, and/or eliminating the reservoir. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer cause; bovine leukemia virus; environmental reservoir; primary prevention breast cancer cause; bovine leukemia virus; environmental reservoir; primary prevention
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Buehring, G.C.; Sans, H.M. Breast Cancer Gone Viral? Review of Possible Role of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Breast Cancer, and Related Opportunities for Cancer Prevention. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 209.

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