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Article

Health Risk Modifiers of Exposure to Persistent Pollutants among Indigenous Peoples of Chukotka

1
Arctic Biomonitoring Laboratory, Northern (Arctic) Federal University, 163002 Arkhangelsk, Russia
2
Northwest Public Health Research Center, 191031 St. Petersburg, Russia
3
Laboratory of Arctic Medicine, Mechnikov Northwestern State Medical University, 191015 St. Petersburg, Russia
4
National Research University Higher School of Economics, 101000 Moscow, Russia
5
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 0033 Oslo, Norway
6
Department of Hygiene and Human Ecology, Northern State Medical University, 163002 Arkhangelsk, Russia
7
NTNU, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
8
Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010128
Received: 2 November 2019 / Revised: 12 December 2019 / Accepted: 17 December 2019 / Published: 23 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
The aim of the study was to assess temporal trends in health risks related to most common persistent contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), lead (Pb), as well as mercury (Hg) among indigenous peoples living in coastal areas of Chukotka in Arctic Russia. This is examined in relation to exposure pathways and a range of social and behavioral factors capable of modifying the exposure to these contaminants, including place of residence, income, traditional subsistence, alcohol consumption, and awareness of risk prevention. The primary exposure pathway for PCBs is shown to be the intake of traditional foods, which explained as much as 90% of the total health risk calculated employing established risk guidelines. Nearly 50% of past DDT-related health risks also appear to have been contributed by contaminated indoor surfaces involving commonly used DDT-containing insecticides. Individuals who practiced traditional activities are shown to have experienced a 4.4-fold higher risk of exposure to PCBs and a 1.3-fold higher risk for DDTs, Pb, and Hg. Low income, high consumption of marine mammal fat, alcohol consumption, and lack of awareness of health risk prevention are attributed to a further 2- to 6-fold increase in the risk of PCBs exposure. Low socioeconomic status enhances the health risks associated with exposure to the persistent contaminants examined. View Full-Text
Keywords: persistent contaminants; Chukotka; indigenous peoples; health risk assessment; risk modifying factors persistent contaminants; Chukotka; indigenous peoples; health risk assessment; risk modifying factors
MDPI and ACS Style

Chashchin, V.; Kovshov, A.A.; Thomassen, Y.; Sorokina, T.; Gorbanev, S.A.; Morgunov, B.; Gudkov, A.B.; Chashchin, M.; Sturlis, N.V.; Trofimova, A.; Odland, J.Ø.; Nieboer, E. Health Risk Modifiers of Exposure to Persistent Pollutants among Indigenous Peoples of Chukotka. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 128. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010128

AMA Style

Chashchin V, Kovshov AA, Thomassen Y, Sorokina T, Gorbanev SA, Morgunov B, Gudkov AB, Chashchin M, Sturlis NV, Trofimova A, Odland JØ, Nieboer E. Health Risk Modifiers of Exposure to Persistent Pollutants among Indigenous Peoples of Chukotka. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(1):128. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010128

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chashchin, Valery, Aleksandr A. Kovshov, Yngvar Thomassen, Tatiana Sorokina, Sergey A. Gorbanev, Boris Morgunov, Andrey B. Gudkov, Maksim Chashchin, Natalia V. Sturlis, Anna Trofimova, Jon Ø. Odland, and Evert Nieboer. 2020. "Health Risk Modifiers of Exposure to Persistent Pollutants among Indigenous Peoples of Chukotka" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 1: 128. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010128

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