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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081356

Relationship Between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis

School of Public Health, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, 283 Jianghai Dadao, Haizhu District, Guangzhou 510310, China
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Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
PDF [463 KB, uploaded 15 April 2019]

Abstract

Previous studies have suggested an association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and risk of depressive symptoms. However, it remains unclear whether there is a dose–response relationship. The effect estimates were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effect models based on homogeneity analysis. The dose–response meta-analysis was performed by linear and non-linear regression. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the possible sources of heterogeneity. Twenty-four studies were included in this meta-analysis. SHS exposure was significantly associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25–1.39). For SHS exposure expressed as an ordinal variable, the dose–response meta-analysis revealed a monotonically increasing relationship between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms. A similar dose–response relationship was observed for SHS exposure expressed as a continuous variable (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.26–1.87). Our findings suggest that SHS exposure is associated with increasing odds of depressive symptoms in a dose–response manner.
Keywords: secondhand smoke; depressive symptoms; depression; epidemiology discipline secondhand smoke; depressive symptoms; depression; epidemiology discipline
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Han, C.; Liu, Y.; Gong, X.; Ye, X.; Zhou, J. Relationship Between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1356.

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