Next Article in Journal
Feasibility and Acceptability of ‘Opt-In’ Referrals for Stop Smoking Support in Pregnancy
Previous Article in Journal
Relationship Between Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Dose–Response Meta-Analysis
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081357

Estimation of the Allergenic Potential of Urban Trees and Urban Parks: Towards the Healthy Design of Urban Green Spaces of the Future

1
Department of Botany, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research (IISTA-CEAMA), University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon, Portugal
4
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science and Birmingham Institute of Forest Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
5
Faculty of Architecture, Sapienza Universitá di Roma, 00185 Rome, Italy
6
Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), 00144 Rome, Italy
7
Spanish Association for Public Parks and Gardens, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain
8
Regional Agency for the Service of Agricultural and Forest (ERSAF), 2014 Milano, Italy
9
CNR Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Florence, Italy
10
Centro de Investigação da Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
11
Department of Land and Agro-Forestry Systems, University of Padova, 35020 Legnano, Italy
12
Slovenian Forestry Institute, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Green Spaces)
PDF [826 KB, uploaded 15 April 2019]

Abstract

The impact of allergens emitted by urban green spaces on health is one of the main disservices of ecosystems. The objective of this work is to establish the potential allergenic value of some tree species in urban environments, so that the allergenicity of green spaces can be estimated through application of the Index of Urban Green Zones Allergenicity (IUGZA). Multiple types of green spaces in Mediterranean cities were selected for the estimation of IUGZ. The results show that some of the ornamental species native to the Mediterranean are among the main causative agents of allergy in the population; in particular, Oleaceae, Cupressaceae, Fagaceae, and Platanus hispanica. Variables of the strongest impact on IUGZA were the bioclimatic characteristics of the territory and design aspects, such as the density of trees and the number of species. We concluded that the methodology to assess the allergenicity associated with urban trees and urban areas presented in this work opens new perspectives in the design and planning of urban green spaces, pointing out the need to consider the potential allergenicity of a species when selecting plant material to be used in cities. Only then can urban green areas be inclusive spaces, in terms of public health.
Keywords: index of urban green zone allergenicity; cost of greening; impact on health; ecosystem disservices; allergenic trees; value of potential allergenicity (VPA) index of urban green zone allergenicity; cost of greening; impact on health; ecosystem disservices; allergenic trees; value of potential allergenicity (VPA)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cariñanos, P.; Grilo, F.; Pinho, P.; Casares-Porcel, M.; Branquinho, C.; Acil, N.; Andreucci, M.B.; Anjos, A.; Bianco, P.M.; Brini, S.; Calaza-Martínez, P.; Calvo, E.; Carrari, E.; Castro, J.; Chiesura, A.; Correia, O.; Gonçalves, A.; Gonçalves, P.; Mexia, T.; Mirabile, M.; Paoletti, E.; Santos-Reis, M.; Semenzato, P.; Vilhar, U. Estimation of the Allergenic Potential of Urban Trees and Urban Parks: Towards the Healthy Design of Urban Green Spaces of the Future. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1357.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top