Next Article in Journal
Dietary Intake of Polish Female Soccer Players
Next Article in Special Issue
Depression Fully Mediates the Effect of Multimorbidity on Self-Rated Health for Economically Disadvantaged African American Men but Not Women
Previous Article in Journal
Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Bipolar Patients: The Role of Psychiatrists in Its Detection and Management
Previous Article in Special Issue
Neighborhood Greenness Attenuates the Adverse Effect of PM2.5 on Cardiovascular Mortality in Neighborhoods of Lower Socioeconomic Status
Article Menu
Issue 7 (April-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Social and Environmental Neighborhood Typologies and Lung Function in a Low-Income, Urban Population

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 427 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 USA
Department of Geography and Division of Epidemiology, The Ohio State University, 1036 Derby Hall, 154 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, 13001 E 17th Place, Campus Box B119, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1133;
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
PDF [312 KB, uploaded 29 March 2019]


Consensus is growing on the need to investigate the joint impact of neighborhood-level social factors and environmental hazards on respiratory health. This study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to empirically identify distinct neighborhood subtypes according to a clustering of social factors and environmental hazards, and to examine whether those subtypes are associated with lung function. The study included 182 low-income participants who were enrolled in the Colorado Home Energy Efficiency and Respiratory Health (CHEER) study during the years 2015–2017. Distinct neighborhood typologies were identified based on analyses of 632 census tracts in the Denver-Metro and Front Range area of Colorado; neighborhood characteristics used to identify typologies included green space, traffic-related air pollution, violent and property crime, racial/ethnic composition, and socioeconomic status (SES). Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between neighborhood typology and lung function. We found four distinct neighborhood typologies and provide evidence that these social and environmental aspects of neighborhoods cluster along lines of advantage/disadvantage. We provide suggestive evidence of a double jeopardy situation where low-income populations living in disadvantaged neighborhoods may have decreased lung function. Using LPA with social and environmental characteristics may help to identify meaningful neighborhood subtypes and inform research on the mechanisms by which neighborhoods influence health. View Full-Text
Keywords: social and environmental determinants of health; neighborhoods and health; latent profile analysis social and environmental determinants of health; neighborhoods and health; latent profile analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Humphrey, J.L.; Lindstrom, M.; Barton, K.E.; Shrestha, P.M.; Carlton, E.J.; Adgate, J.L.; Miller, S.L.; Root, E.D. Social and Environmental Neighborhood Typologies and Lung Function in a Low-Income, Urban Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1133.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top