1.1. Disaster Health Preparedness in the Rural Poor Areas in China
1.2. Building Disaster Health Resilient Communities
1.3. Local Epidemiological and Demographic Data of Hongyan Village, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, China
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Planning Framework and Data Collection
2.2. Information for Health Planning
2.2.1. Literature Review
2.2.2. Household Survey
2.2.3. Focus Group
2.2.4. Discussion with Stakeholders
2.3. Data Analysis
3.1. Problem Definition: Community Needs and Perceived Priorities
3.2. Problem Definition: Determinants of Lack of Disaster Preparedness
3.2.1. Theme 1: Knowledge of Consequences and Treatment of Diarrhoea
3.2.2. Theme 2: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Use of Disaster Kit
3.3. Solution Generation
3.3.1. Choice of Health Promotion Model and Intervention Strategy
- That they are susceptible to the problem.
- That the problem could result in potentially severe consequences.
- That course of action can reduce risks.
- That benefits of action outweigh barriers
- Self-efficacy .
3.3.2. Experience from Past Programmes and Practitioners Applied to the Intervention
3.4. Capacity Building
3.4.1. Mobilizing Human, Material and Financial Resources
3.4.2. Training People and Building Sustainable Programmes
3.4.3. Raising Public and Political Awareness
Conflicts of Interest
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|Planning Stage||Information Needed||Source||Section|
|Problem definition||Local epidemiological and demographic data to determine the size and nature of the problem||Literature review||1.3|
|Community needs and perceived priorities||Household survey|
|Determinants of lack of disaster preparedness||Literature review|
|Solution generation||Theories and intervention models||Literature review||3.3|
|Evidence from past programmes and practitioners||Discussion with stakeholders||3.3|
|Capacity building||Mobilizing resources, training and infrastructure development, raising public and political awareness||Discussion with stakeholders||3.4|
|Public health, medicine||Collaborating Centre for Oxford and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response (CCOUC)||-Recruit volunteers|
-Carry out the health needs assessment
-Plan, implement and evaluate the program
|-Multi-disciplinary (members include doctors and public health professionals)|
-Health needs assessment
-Planning, implementing and evaluating program
|Architecture/housing||Wu Zhi Qiao (WZQ) Foundation, Department of Architecture, Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)||-Assessing the need for a sustainable development project (e.g., building bridges, schools and housing)||-Access to the community, local knowledge (WZQ previously conducted exploration mission on 20–22 October 2012.|
|Local stakeholders||Local village representatives 1||-Liaise with other stakeholders on behalf of local villagers|
-Facilitate programme planning, implementation and evaluation
|-Access to the community, local knowledge|
|Programme volunteers||Students from CUHK||-Human resources||-Manpower|
|Theme||Results||Source of Information #|
|Health needs||General health:|
-53.7% had good health status, but 43.5% complained of deteriorating health compared to 5 years ago.
Diseases requiring long-term medication:
-Gastrointestinal symptoms were most frequently reported (16.7%), followed by arthritis (6.2%) and respiratory complaints (2%)
-38.9% reported experiencing diarrhoea in the last 3 months
|Healthcare access||-No village doctor was available in Hongyan village. No local emergency service is available: The closest ambulance station is in Xide county, with a response time of 1 h.|
-For health visits, 51.8% went to the township clinic, 20.4% went to the hospital, while 3.7% preferred to buy over-the-counter medicine
-Many villagers only seek medical consultation when they cannot withstand discomfort, due to the cost of medical care.
-50% had avoided medical care in the past 3 months as they were unable to afford it.
|Health needs during a disaster||-Only 38.9% of villagers thought they had the ability to protect their family’s health and safety during a disaster|
-In the 2012 flood, 31.5% reported falling sick. Of those, the most common complaint was gastrointestinal symptoms (37.5%).
|Disaster preparation and response||-To prepare for disasters, regular exercises were held to demonstrate the route of evacuation. No other disaster preparation was done, due to lack of knowledge and financial support.|
-68.5% of respondents had no preparation before flooding.
-The only warning system used mobile phones, which did not work during disasters, due to serious damage to communication infrastructure.
During the 2012 flood, most villagers moved higher up the mountain to avoid landslides and house collapse. They stayed in temporary shelters for an average of 62 days.
|Category||Item||Cost (USD) in 2012||Estimated Budget (USD) for 2014|
|Manpower for background survey and focus group (2012 trip)||Air-tickets and road transportation costs for 10 team members||7987|
|Accommodation for 10 team members and drivers||459|
|Meal expenses for 10 team members||764|
|Incentives for 54 interview participants||103|
|Honorarium for local staff||267|
|Manpower for background survey and intervention (2014 trip)||Air-tickets and road transportation costs for 24 team members||19,200|
|Accommodation for 24 team members and drivers||1100|
|Meal expenses for 24 team members||2000|
|Incentives for 100 interview participants||200|
|Honorarium for local staff||300|
|Intervention materials||Printing 5 posters and 100 flyers||130|
|ORS souvenirs: 100 plastic teaspoons and cups||25|
|100 disaster kits||380|
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