Next Article in Journal
Spatiotemporal Variation and Hotspot Detection of the Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in China, 2013–2017
Previous Article in Journal
Isolation and Characterization of a Bacterial Strain Capable of Efficient Berberine Degradation
Article

The Effects of Swimming Training in Cold Water on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Erythrocytes of Male and Female Aged Rats

1
Department of Functional Diagnostics and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin; Żołnierska 54, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin; Broniewskiego 24, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland
3
Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Żołnierska 54, 71-210 Szczecin, Poland
4
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine with English Language Teaching Department, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin; Powstańców Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
5
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine with English Language Teaching Department, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin; Powstańców Wielkopolskich 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
6
Laboratory of Experimental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Via Riccardo Galeazzi, 4, 20161 Milano, Italy
7
Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Via Olgettina Milano, 58, 20132 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040647
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
The aim of this study was to verify whether eight-week-long swimming exercise training would evaluate the level of selected indicators of the pro-oxidant/antioxidant status in response to cold water in comparison with swimming under thermoneutral conditions in sedentary male and female elderly rats. The exercise-trained groups swam four min/day and five days a week during eight weeks of housing. Exercise was performed by swimming in glass tanks containing tap water maintained according to group at 5 °C and 36 °C. At the end of treatment (48 h after the last session), all rats were anaesthetized. The level of chosen biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity was determined in the red blood cells and plasma. The results of study show that female rats seem to be better adapted to changing thermal conditions of the environment, developing not only morphological, but also antioxidant, defense mechanisms, mainly in the form of increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration to restore the pro-oxidant/oxidant balance of the organism. Significantly higher concentrations of GSH were observed in the female rats of the group swimming in cold water (by 15.4% compared to the control group and by 20.5% in relation to the group of female rats swimming at 36 °C). In the group exposed to swimming training exercise in cold water, a significantly higher activity of SOD1 (by 13.4%) was found compared to the control group. On the other hand, the organs of ageing male rats show a reduced capacity to increase the metabolic response to low temperatures compared to female ones. In addition, it was demonstrated that cold exposure leads to an increase in lipid peroxidation in tissues. On the other hand, the repeated exposure to low levels of oxidative stress may result in some adaptive changes in organisms that help them to resist stress-induced damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; cold swim; elderly rats; lipids peroxidation antioxidant enzymes; cold swim; elderly rats; lipids peroxidation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lubkowska, A.; Bryczkowska, I.; Gutowska, I.; Rotter, I.; Marczuk, N.; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I.; Banfi, G. The Effects of Swimming Training in Cold Water on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Erythrocytes of Male and Female Aged Rats. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040647

AMA Style

Lubkowska A, Bryczkowska I, Gutowska I, Rotter I, Marczuk N, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Banfi G. The Effects of Swimming Training in Cold Water on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Erythrocytes of Male and Female Aged Rats. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(4):647. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040647

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lubkowska, Anna, Iwona Bryczkowska, Izabela Gutowska, Iwona Rotter, Natalia Marczuk, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, and Giuseppe Banfi. 2019. "The Effects of Swimming Training in Cold Water on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Erythrocytes of Male and Female Aged Rats" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 4: 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040647

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop