Next Article in Journal
The Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among Overweight/Obese and Non-Overweight/Non-Obese Children/Adolescents in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Characteristics and Trends of Pneumoconiosis in the Jiangsu Province, China, 2006–2017
Previous Article in Journal
Poisson-Gamma Mixture Spatially Varying Coefficient Modeling of Small-Area Intestinal Parasites Infection
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hip Osteoarthritis and Physical Workload: Influence of Study Quality on Risk Estimations—A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Findings
Open AccessReview

Occupational Exposures and Neurodegenerative Diseases—A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analyses

1
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden
2
Department of Statistics, Örebro University, 701 82 Örebro, Sweden
3
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, SE 177 77 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030337
Received: 4 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Epidemiology)
Objectives: To carry out an integrated and stratified meta-analysis on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs), metals and pesticides and its effects on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, and investigate the possibility of publication bias. Methods: In the current study, we updated our recently published meta-analyses on occupational exposures in relation to ALS, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Based on 66 original publications of good scientific epidemiological standard, according to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) guidelines, we analysed subgroups by carrying out stratified meta-analyses on publication year, statistical precision of the relative risk (RR) estimates, inspection of the funnel plots and test of bias. Results: Based on 19 studies the weighted RR for occupational exposure to EMFs was 1.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–1.50) for ALS, 1.33 (95% CI 1.07–1.64) for Alzheimer’s disease and 1.02 (95% CI 0.83–1.26) for Parkinson’s disease. Thirty-one studies concerned occupational exposure to pesticides and the weighted RR was 1.35 (95% CI 1.02–1.79) for ALS, 1.50 (95% CI 0.98–2.29) for Alzheimer’s disease and 1.66 (95% CI 1.42–1.94) for Parkinson’s disease. Finally, 14 studies concerned occupational exposure to metals and only exposure to lead (five studies) involved an elevated risk for ALS or Parkinson’s disease and the weighted RR was 1.57 (95% CI 1.11–2.20). The weighted RR for all the non-lead exposures was 0.97 (95% CI 0.88–1.06). Conclusions: Exposure to pesticides increased the risk of getting the mentioned neurodegenerative diseases by at least 50%. Exposure to lead was only studied for ALS and Parkinson’s disease and involved 50% increased risk. Occupational exposure to EMFs seemed to involve some 10% increase in risk for ALS and Alzheimer’s disease only. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology; metals; pesticides; electromagnetic fields; ALS; Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease epidemiology; metals; pesticides; electromagnetic fields; ALS; Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gunnarsson, L.-G.; Bodin, L. Occupational Exposures and Neurodegenerative Diseases—A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analyses. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030337

AMA Style

Gunnarsson L-G, Bodin L. Occupational Exposures and Neurodegenerative Diseases—A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analyses. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(3):337. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030337

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Bodin, Lennart. 2019. "Occupational Exposures and Neurodegenerative Diseases—A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analyses" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 3: 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030337

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop