- freely available
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030301
2. Method and Scope of Completed Studies
- stationary monitoring system, EXO2 probe (Xylem Inc., Rye Brook, NY, USA) installed on a buoy anchored near the dam,
- mobile measurement system, based on the EXO2 probe mounted on a motorboat,
- off-line measurement system, samples of water collected from the reservoir and analysed in a laboratory.
2.1. Research-Based Stationary Monitoring System
2.2. Laboratory Test Method
3. Results of Monitoring Studies
3.1. Stationary Monitoring
3.1.1. Results of Measurements of Meteorological Parameters
3.1.2. Results of Water Temperature Measurements
3.1.3. Results of Chlorophyll “a” Concentration Measurements
3.1.4. Results of Measurements of Blue-Green Algae (BGA)
3.1.5. Results of Measurements of other Physicochemical Parameters of Water
3.2. Results of Mobile Measurements
3.2.1. Spatial Distribution of Water Temperature in the Sulejow Reservoir in 2015 and 2016
3.2.2. Spatial Distribution of Chlorophyll Concentrations in 2015 and 2016
3.2.3. Spatial Distribution of Blue-Green Algae (BGA) Concentration in the Sulejow Reservoir in 2015 and 2016
3.3. Results of Laboratory Tests
3.3.1. Content of Phosphorus Compounds
3.3.2. Content of Nitrate Nitrogen
3.3.3. Content of Total Organic Carbon, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Biochemical Oxygen Demand
- profiles of air and water temperature changes in 2015 and 2016 were similar, significant differences were observed for atmospheric precipitation. Negative water balance caused limited surface runoff and decreased the concentrations of nutrient in reservoir waters.
- low nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the reservoir waters are not only caused by minor surface runoff in the analysed period, but also by a strong eutrophication and algal blooms. The spatial distribution and dynamics of changes in the concentration of biogenic substances show that higher concentrations were measured in the tributary rivers (Pilica and Luciaza).
- Blue-green algae occur mainly in the area of the high depths, lower flow rate and places of water stagnation, which favour the algae growth . In contrast to the BGA, concentrations of chlorophyll “a” are higher in the shallower part of the reservoir.
- Concentrations of TOC, COD as a measure of organic matter content in waters, randomly exceed the standards for the 2nd class of water purity.
- Higher concentrations of BOD in the reservoir in comparison to the supplying rivers, recorded in 2016, were associated with active tourism in the summer season.
- Analysis of spatial distribution of biogenic substances in the reservoir shows significant differences in different parts of the lake, which means that single, stationary measurements do not deliver a realistic picture of the contaminants flow in the dam reservoirs.
Conflicts of Interest
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|EXO Parameter Measured||Sensor||Range||Accuracy||Resolution|
|Ammonium (freshwater only)||Ammonium Sensor||0 to 200 mg/dm3 (0 to 30 °C)||± 10% of reading or 2 mg/dm3-N||0.01 mg/dm3|
|Blue-green Algae, Phycocyanin||Total Algae Sensor||0 to 100 μg/dm3;|
0 to 100 RFU;
|Linearity: R2 >0.999 for serial dilution of Rhodamine WT solution from 0 to 100 μg/cm3 BGA-PC equivalents||0.01 μg/dm3; 0.01 RFU|
|Chlorophyll||Total Algae Sensor||0 to 400 μg/dm3 Chl;|
0 to 100 RFU
|Linearity: R2 > 0.999 for serial dilution of Rhodamine WT solution from 0 to 400 μg/dm3 Chl a equivalents||0.01 μg/dm3 Chl; 0.01 RFU|
|Conductivity||Conductivity/Temperature Sensor||0 to 200 mS/cm||0 to 100: ±0.5% of reading or 0.001 mS/cm; 100 to 200: ± 1% of reading||0.0001 to 0.01 mS/cm (range dependent)|
|Depth—10 m||Integral, Non-vented Depth Sensor||0 to 10 m||± 0.04% FS (± 0.004 m)||0.001 m (auto-ranging)|
|Dissolved Oxygen, mg/dm3||Optical Dissolved Oxygen Sensor||0 to 50 mg/dm3||0 to 20 mg/dm3: ± 0.1 mg/dm3 or 1% of reading, 20 to 50 mg/dm3: ± 5% of reading||0.01 mg/dm3|
|pH||pH Sensor||0 to 14||± 0.1 pH units within ± 10 °C of calibration temp; ± 0.2 pH units for entire temp. range||0.01 units|
|Temperature||Conductivity/Temperature Sensor||−5 to 35 °C 35 to 50 °C||± 0.01 °C ± 0.05 °C||0.001 °C|
|Mean Value||Standard Deviation||Mean Value||Standard Deviation|
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