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Hydrochemical Analysis and Fuzzy Logic Method for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in the North Chengdu Plain, China

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Faculty of Geoscience and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
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Faculty of Water and Environmental Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum 11111, Sudan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030302
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Groundwater is a major water resource in the North Chengdu Plain, China. The research objective is to determine the quality and suitability of groundwater for drinking purposes within the vicinity of a shallow, unconsolidated aquifer of Quaternary age. In this study, a detailed investigation was conducted to define the hydrochemical characteristics that control the quality of groundwater, based on traditional methods. Considering the uncertainties linked with water resources and the environmental complications, the fuzzy logic method was used in the determination of groundwater quality for more precise findings that support decision-making. To achieve such an objective, sixteen water quality guidelines were used to determine groundwater quality status in six selected wells. The results showed that the groundwater is neutral, very hard, and fresh in nature. Dominating cations and anions are in the order of Ca 2 + > Na + > Mg 2 + > K + and HCO 3 > SO 4 2 > Cl . The Piper trilinear diagram demonstrates that the hydrochemical facies of groundwater are mostly of Ca-HCO 3 type. Statistical analysis denotes a positive correlation between most of the chemical parameters. The study took the results of the fuzzy logic evaluation method into consideration, to classify the samples into five groups according to the Chinese groundwater quality standard (GB/T 14848-93) for their suitability for domestic use. The results demonstrated that the quality of the groundwater samples is within grade II and III, and is suitable for drinking purposes. The comprehensive evaluation of groundwater quality is critical to aid sensitive policy decisions, and the proposed approach can guarantee reliable findings to that effect. The results of this study would also be helpful to future researches related to groundwater quality assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater quality; hydrochemical facies; WHO standard; fuzzy logic; North Chengdu plain groundwater quality; hydrochemical facies; WHO standard; fuzzy logic; North Chengdu plain
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Mohamed, A.K.; Liu, D.; Song, K.; Mohamed, M.A.A.; Aldaw, E.; Elubid, B.A. Hydrochemical Analysis and Fuzzy Logic Method for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in the North Chengdu Plain, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 302.

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