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Bone-Loading Physical Activity and Alcohol Intake but not BMI Affect Areal Bone Mineral Density in Young College-Aged Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Division of Sport and Health Studies, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju-si 27478, Korea
2
Sports Convergence Institute, Konkuk University, Chungju-si 27478, Korea
3
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1716 9th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
4
Department of Physical Therapy and Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 3 Solomont Way, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245063
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 9 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 December 2019 / Published: 12 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD) based on alcohol consumption behaviors, bone-loading history as assessed by a bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ), and the body mass index (BMI). College-aged female students (N = 112) were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. The aBMD of the lumbar spine and non-dominant side of the proximal femur (total hip, TH; femoral neck, FN; femoral trochanter, FT) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Alcohol consumption was determined by the frequency and amount of alcohol intake during the past 12 months using a self-reported questionnaire. The X-scan plus II was used to measure height (cm), body mass (kg), fat-free mass (FFM, kg), and % body fat. Drinking two or more times alcohol per week was associated with greater aBMD of the TH (p = 0.04–0.002) and FN (p = 0.043) compared to a lower frequency of alcohol consumption and 2–4 times per month, respectively. Based on the drinking amount per occasion, there were no significant group differences (p > 0.05) in aBMD at any of the sites. The highest group of total BPAQ had greater aBMD of the TH, FN, and FT versus the lowest (p = 0.023–0.009) and mid of total BPAQ groups (p = 0.004–0.009). Additionally, the highest group had greater aBMD of the lumbar spine compared to the mid group (p = 0.001). No significant group differences in aBMD at any of the sites were noted based on the BMI (p > 0.05). Young college-aged women with greater bone-loading physical activity showed greater aBMD at the TH, FN, FT, and lumbar spine, while a moderate alcohol intake was associated with greater aBMD of the TH and FN. These findings have clinical implications for young women who may not participate in high-impact physical activity and are binge drinkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone mineral density; bone-specific physical activity; body mass index; young women bone mineral density; bone-specific physical activity; body mass index; young women
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sung, D.J.; Singh, H.; Oh, S.-B.; Kim, S. Bone-Loading Physical Activity and Alcohol Intake but not BMI Affect Areal Bone Mineral Density in Young College-Aged Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 5063. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245063

AMA Style

Sung DJ, Singh H, Oh S-B, Kim S. Bone-Loading Physical Activity and Alcohol Intake but not BMI Affect Areal Bone Mineral Density in Young College-Aged Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(24):5063. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245063

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sung, Dong J., Harshvardhan Singh, Seung-Bum Oh, and SoJung Kim. 2019. "Bone-Loading Physical Activity and Alcohol Intake but not BMI Affect Areal Bone Mineral Density in Young College-Aged Korean Women: A Cross-Sectional Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 24: 5063. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245063

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