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Open AccessArticle

In-Water and On-Land Swimmers’ Symmetry and Force Production

Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
Porto Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Research Center in Sport, Health and Human Development, CIDESD, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Department of Sport Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, ACT, Canberra 2601, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5018;
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 3 December 2019 / Accepted: 5 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Exercise and Sports Performance)
Although performance and biomechanical evaluations are becoming more swimming-specific, dryland testing permits monitoring of a larger number of performance-related variables. However, as the degree of comparability of measurements conducted in-water and on land conditions is unclear, we aimed to assess the differences between force production in these two different conditions. Twelve elite swimmers performed a 30 s tethered swimming test and four isokinetic tests (shoulder and knee extension at 90 and 300°/s) to assess peak force, peak and average torque, and power symmetry index. We observed contralateral symmetry in all the tests performed, e.g., for 30 s tethered swimming and peak torque shoulder extension at 90°/s: 178 ± 50 vs. 183 ± 56 N (p = 0.38) and 95 ± 37 vs. 94 ± 35 N × m (p = 0.52). Moderate to very large direct relationships were evident between dryland testing and swimming force production (r = 0.62 to 0.96; p < 0.05). Swimmers maintained similar symmetry index values independently of the testing conditions (r = −0.06 to −0.41 and 0.04 to 0.44; p = 0.18–0.88). Asymmetries in water seems to be more related to technical constraints than muscular imbalances, but swimmers that displayed higher propulsive forces were the ones with greater force values on land. Thus, tethered swimming and isokinetic evaluations are useful for assessing muscular imbalances regarding propulsive force production and technical asymmetries. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomechanics; isokinetic; tethered swimming; asymmetry; swimming biomechanics; isokinetic; tethered swimming; asymmetry; swimming
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Carvalho, D.D.; Soares, S.; Zacca, R.; Marinho, D.A.; Silva, A.J.; Pyne, D.B.; Vilas-Boas, J.P.; Fernandes, R.J. In-Water and On-Land Swimmers’ Symmetry and Force Production. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 5018.

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