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Risk Assessment and Implications of Schoolchildren Exposure to Classroom Heavy Metals Particles in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80208, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Air Pollution Department, National Research Centre, El Behooth Str., Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt
3
Office of Education/South Jeddah (Girls), Department of Primary Grades, Ministry of Education, Jeddah 23524, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245017
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Children's Health)
Classrooms Air Conditioner Filter (CACF) particles represent all of the exposed particles that have migrated to the interior environment. This study was conducted to assess the heavy metals contamination in CACF particles from Jeddah primary schools located in urban, suburban and residential areas; and to evaluate their health risks of children exposure (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic). Heavy metals levels in CACF particles of schools were in the following order: urban schools > suburban schools > residential schools. Fe, Mn and Zn were the dominant species. Geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF) and pollution load index (PLI) values indicated that the contamination levels was in the following order Cd > Pb > Zn > As > Cu > Ni > Mn > Cr > Co >V > Fe. School CACF particles was moderately contaminated with As and Zn and moderately to heavily contaminated with Pb and Cd. Enrichment factors (EFs) indicated that Zn, Cd, Pb, As and Cu in CACF particles were severe enriched. The hazard quotient (HQs) and hazards index (HI) values for heavy metals were lower than the acceptable level of one. As, Pb, Cr and Mn were exhibited high non-cancer effects for children. The lifetime cancer risk (LCR) and total lifetime cancer risk (TLCR), HQs and HI values for the different exposure pathways of heavy metals decreased in the following order: ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk rank order of schools were urban schools > suburban schools > residential schools. The LCR and TLCR of heavy metals was in the following order: Co > Ni >Cr > Cd > As > Pb. The ingestion lifetime cancer risk (LCRing) and TLCR values from exposure to Ni and Cr in urban and suburban schools, Cd in urban schools, and Co in all Jeddah schools only exceed the acceptable range (1 × 10−6–1 × 10−4) Only LCRing and TLCR values from exposure to ∑ carcinogens exceed the acceptable level. View Full-Text
Keywords: classrooms air conditioner filter particles; heavy metals; contamination level; indoor air quality; health risk; schools classrooms air conditioner filter particles; heavy metals; contamination level; indoor air quality; health risk; schools
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Alghamdi, M.A.; Hassan, S.K.; Alzahrani, N.A.; Almehmadi, F.M.; Khoder, M.I. Risk Assessment and Implications of Schoolchildren Exposure to Classroom Heavy Metals Particles in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 5017.

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