Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) contribute significantly to NOX
and particulate matter (PM) pollution. Although existing studies have emphasized that HDDTs play a dominant role in vehicular pollution, the spatial distribution pattern of HDDT emissions and their related socioeconomic factors are unclear. To fill this research gap, this study investigates the spatial distribution pattern and spatial autocorrelation characteristics of NOX
, PM, and SO2
emissions from HDDTs in 200 districts and counties of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region. We used the spatial lag model to calculate the significances and directions of the pollutants from HDDTs and their related socioeconomic factors, namely, per capita GDP, population density, urbanization rate, and proportions of secondary and tertiary industries. Then, the geographical detector technique was applied to quantify the strengths of the significant socioeconomic factors of HDDT emissions. The results show that (1) NOX
, PM, and SO2
pollutants emitted by HDDTs in the BTH region have spatial heterogeneity, i.e., low in the north and high in the east and south. (2) The pollutants from HDDTs in the BTH region have significant spatial autocorrelation characteristics. The spatial dependence effect was obvious; for every 1% increase in the HDDT emissions in the surrounding districts and counties, the local HDDT emissions increased by 0.39%. (3) Related factors analysis showed that the proportion of tertiary industries had a significant negative correlation, whereas the proportion of secondary industries and urbanization rate had significant positive correlations with HDDT emissions. Population density and per capita GDP did not pass the significance test. (4) The order of effect intensities of the significant socioeconomic factors was proportion of tertiary industry > proportion of secondary industry > urbanization rate. This study guides scientific decision making for pollution control of HDDTs in the BTH region.
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