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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Maternal Smoking on the Onset of Breastfeeding versus Formula Feeding: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Breastfeeding coordinator, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, 39008 Santander, Spain
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Faculty of Nursing. Universidad de Cantabria. IDIVAL, GI Derecho Sanitario y Bioética. GRIDES. Santander, 39008, Spain
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Obstetrics Service. Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, 39008, Spain
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Supervisor, Gynecology Service. Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, 39008 Santander, Spain
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Faculty of Nursing. University of Cantabria, 39008 Santander, Spain
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Section Manager, Pediatrics Service. Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, 39008 Santander, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244888
Received: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women's Reproductive and Maternal Health)
This study sought to estimate the prevalence of maternal smoking and its association with exclusive breastfeeding vs. formula feeding. A cross-sectional study was performed on postpartum women at a public hospital in Spain, between January and August 2018. The main variables studied were their age, level of study, smoking habits, and chosen mode of infant feeding. In total, 948 postpartum women were included. Of these, 12.45% were smokers who smoked a mean of 7.23 cigarettes/day. Among the group of smokers, the probability of feeding the newborns with formula milk was multiplied by 2.32 ([95%CI 1.50–3.58] p < 0.001). When stratifying tobacco use into mild, moderate and severe, we found a statistically significant dose–response pattern. These associations and their statistical significance were maintained when adjusting by age and level of study. In conclusion, in the group of postpartum mothers who smoked, the probability of feeding the newborns with formula milk doubled. Our data highlight the need to improve health education programs in women of childbearing age, especially during pregnancy.
Keywords: breastfeeding; newborn; prevalence; tobacco. breastfeeding; newborn; prevalence; tobacco.
MDPI and ACS Style

Lechosa Muñiz, C.; Paz-Zulueta, M.; del Río, E.C.; Sota, S.M.; Sáez de Adana, M.; Pérez, M.M.; Cabero Pérez, M.J. Impact of Maternal Smoking on the Onset of Breastfeeding versus Formula Feeding: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4888.

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