Existing food classification and description systems provide users with limited information related to exposure assessment. Our aim in this work is to propose a standardized food description facet called the Taiwan Food Recipe (TFR) system as an emerging tool for food composition, with detailed food ingredient information, including names, proportions, weights of uncooked and cooked foods, etc. The composite foods listed in the Taiwan Nutrition and Health Survey were collected into a list and as consumption data. The TFR system is intended to help analysts reduce potential estimation bias, where, for example, risk assessment results may be overestimated or underestimated due to the complexity of the composition in the composite foods. Based on a Taiwanese food database, we further illustrate and demonstrate how the TFR system can be applied to the assessment of risk of cadmium (Cd) exposure in rice ingredients in the composite food products. In the original system (HFDFC system), the composite food intakes used total weight to estimate the hazard index (HI
) of cadmium in the exposure risk assessment, but the percentage of rice was not 100%. The proposed TFR system estimates the percentage of rice and actual intakes in composite foods. Fried rice, sushi, and rice balls in the study were the most common foods containing rice and had higher consumption rates among Taiwan’s rice-based composite foods. The HIs
of fried rice, sushi, and rice balls were 0.09, 0.10, and 0.13, respectively, in the HFDFC system. In the TFR system, the HIs
of rice in fried rice, sushi, and rice balls were 0.06, 0.04 and 0.05, respectively. The HI
of other components in fried rice, sushi, and rice balls were 0.03, 0.06 and 0.08, respectively. More precise HIs
were thus shown. The TFR system contributes to global food classification and description systems by providing an appropriate, standardized, and generalized framework for exposure assessments.
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