Next Article in Journal
Culture of Blame—An Ongoing Burden for Doctors and Patient Safety
Previous Article in Journal
Temporal and Spatial Features of the Correlation between PM2.5 and O3 Concentrations in China
Open AccessArticle

The Integration of Recipes with a Standardizable Food Description FACET for Cadmium Exposure Risk Assessment

1
Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2
Graduate Institute of Food Safety, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40200, Taiwan
3
Department of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
4
Department of Nursing, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
5
Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234825
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 16 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health Statistics and Risk Assessment)
Existing food classification and description systems provide users with limited information related to exposure assessment. Our aim in this work is to propose a standardized food description facet called the Taiwan Food Recipe (TFR) system as an emerging tool for food composition, with detailed food ingredient information, including names, proportions, weights of uncooked and cooked foods, etc. The composite foods listed in the Taiwan Nutrition and Health Survey were collected into a list and as consumption data. The TFR system is intended to help analysts reduce potential estimation bias, where, for example, risk assessment results may be overestimated or underestimated due to the complexity of the composition in the composite foods. Based on a Taiwanese food database, we further illustrate and demonstrate how the TFR system can be applied to the assessment of risk of cadmium (Cd) exposure in rice ingredients in the composite food products. In the original system (HFDFC system), the composite food intakes used total weight to estimate the hazard index (HI) of cadmium in the exposure risk assessment, but the percentage of rice was not 100%. The proposed TFR system estimates the percentage of rice and actual intakes in composite foods. Fried rice, sushi, and rice balls in the study were the most common foods containing rice and had higher consumption rates among Taiwan’s rice-based composite foods. The HIs of fried rice, sushi, and rice balls were 0.09, 0.10, and 0.13, respectively, in the HFDFC system. In the TFR system, the HIs of rice in fried rice, sushi, and rice balls were 0.06, 0.04 and 0.05, respectively. The HI of other components in fried rice, sushi, and rice balls were 0.03, 0.06 and 0.08, respectively. More precise HIs were thus shown. The TFR system contributes to global food classification and description systems by providing an appropriate, standardized, and generalized framework for exposure assessments. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; consumption database; food recipes; risk assessment cadmium; consumption database; food recipes; risk assessment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chiu, S.-Y.; Lin, H.-T.; Lin, M.-H.; Ho, W.-C.; Chen, P.-C.; Huang, H.-Y. The Integration of Recipes with a Standardizable Food Description FACET for Cadmium Exposure Risk Assessment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4825.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop