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Open AccessArticle

Analysis of Toxic Metals in Liquid from Electronic Cigarettes

1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tobacco and Volatiles Branch, 4770 Buford Hwy, MS S110-3, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
2
Battelle Analytical Services, 2987 Clairmont Road, Suite 450, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224450
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 7 November 2019 / Accepted: 9 November 2019 / Published: 13 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarettes: Good and Bad Impacts)
As the technology of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including e-cigarettes, evolves, assessing metal concentrations in liquids among brands over time becomes challenging. A method for quantification of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, tin, and lead in ENDS liquids using triple quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was developed. The method’s limits of detection (LODs) were 0.031, 0.032, 3.15, 1.27, 0.108, 0.099, 0.066 µg/g for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, and Pb respectively. Liquids analyzed were from different brands and flavors of refill bottles or single-use, rechargeable, and pod devices from different years. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy further evaluated the device components’ compositions. Refill liquids before contacting a device were below lowest reportable levels (LRL) for all metals. Copper and zinc were elevated in liquids from devices containing brass. Cadmium was <LRL in all liquids and was not observed in device components. Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb, reported in µg/g, ranged from <LRL to 0.396, 4.04, 903, 454, 0.898, and 13.5 respectively. Elevated metal concentrations in the liquid were also elevated in aerosol from the corresponding device. The data demonstrates the impact of device design and materials on toxic metals in ENDS liquid. View Full-Text
Keywords: metals; inorganic; vaping; e-liquid; electronic cigarettes; ENDS; e-cigarettes; vapes metals; inorganic; vaping; e-liquid; electronic cigarettes; ENDS; e-cigarettes; vapes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gray, N.; Halstead, M.; Gonzalez-Jimenez, N.; Valentin-Blasini, L.; Watson, C.; Pappas, R.S. Analysis of Toxic Metals in Liquid from Electronic Cigarettes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4450. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224450

AMA Style

Gray N, Halstead M, Gonzalez-Jimenez N, Valentin-Blasini L, Watson C, Pappas RS. Analysis of Toxic Metals in Liquid from Electronic Cigarettes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(22):4450. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224450

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gray, Naudia; Halstead, Mary; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford; Pappas, R. S. 2019. "Analysis of Toxic Metals in Liquid from Electronic Cigarettes" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 22: 4450. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224450

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