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Open AccessArticle

Indoor Microbiome and Antibiotic Resistance on Floor Surfaces: An Exploratory Study in Three Different Building Types

by 1,†, 1,†, 1 and 1,2,*
1
College of public Health, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2
Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4160; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214160
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 25 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Microbiology and Urban Health)
Floor materials in indoor environments are known to be reservoirs of microbes. We focused on examining bacterial community composition, antibiotic resistance (AR) and microbial source tracking (MST) of fecal bacteria on the floor surfaces. Swab samples were collected from carpet and vinyl floors in three different buildings (medical, veterinary, and office buildings) from high and low traffic areas. Bacterial communities were determined with 16S rRNA sequencing, and AR (tetracycline (tetQ), sulfonamide, and carbapenem (KPC)) and MST (human-, canine-, avian-, and ruminant-specific fecal bacteria) were examined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results show that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most abundant phyla. Traffic level significantly affected the number of operational taxonomic units. Traffic level was a key factor for distinctive bacterial community in the medical center. Targeted ARGs were detected from all buildings and tetQ concentration was related with traffic level, and KPC was only detected from the medical center. Most of the floor surfaces showed the presence of dog-specific fecal bacteria (83%) followed by bird-specific fecal bacteria (75%). The results suggest that traffic levels affected the bacterial levels and fecal contamination is prevalent on the floor surfaces. This is the first study that reports KPC presence on the floor surfaces. View Full-Text
Keywords: traffic level; floor types; carbapenem resistance; hospital; microbial source tracking; dog-specific fecal bacteria traffic level; floor types; carbapenem resistance; hospital; microbial source tracking; dog-specific fecal bacteria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gupta, M.; Lee, S.; Bisesi, M.; Lee, J. Indoor Microbiome and Antibiotic Resistance on Floor Surfaces: An Exploratory Study in Three Different Building Types. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4160.

AMA Style

Gupta M, Lee S, Bisesi M, Lee J. Indoor Microbiome and Antibiotic Resistance on Floor Surfaces: An Exploratory Study in Three Different Building Types. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(21):4160.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gupta, Mridula; Lee, Seungjun; Bisesi, Michael; Lee, Jiyoung. 2019. "Indoor Microbiome and Antibiotic Resistance on Floor Surfaces: An Exploratory Study in Three Different Building Types" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 21: 4160.

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