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Review

Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Depression/Anxiety: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Hygiene and Ecomedicine, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University of Plovdiv, 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2
Institute for Highway Engineering and Transport Planning, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214134
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 27 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue WHO Noise and Health Evidence Reviews)
Unlike other World Health Organization evidence reviews, the systematic review on mental disorders could not provide a quantitative estimate of the effect of environmental noise. With that in mind, we aimed to update it with additional studies published through to 18 August 2019 in order to allow for a formal meta-analysis of the association of residential road traffic noise with anxiety and depression. The quality effects and random effects estimators were used for meta-analysis and the robustness of findings was tested in several sensitivity analyses. Ten studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, from which we extracted 15 estimates for depression (n = 1,201,168) and five for anxiety (n = 372,079). Almost all studies were cross-sectional and the risk of bias in them was generally high. We found 4% (95% CI: −3%, 11%) higher odds of depression and 12% (95% CI: −4%, 30%) of anxiety associated with a 10 dB(A) increase in day–evening–night noise level (Lden). Both models suffered from moderate heterogeneity (55% and 54%), but there was evidence of publication bias only in the depression model. These findings were robust with no evidence of study-level moderators. A sensitivity analysis on an alternative set of categorically-reported estimates supported a linear relationship between Lden and depression. Taking into account an overall quality assessment for the included studies, we conclude that there is evidence of “very low” quality that increasing exposure to road traffic noise may be associated with depression and anxiety. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental noise; mental disorders; mental health; transportation noise environmental noise; mental disorders; mental health; transportation noise
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dzhambov, A.M.; Lercher, P. Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Depression/Anxiety: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4134. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214134

AMA Style

Dzhambov AM, Lercher P. Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Depression/Anxiety: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(21):4134. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214134

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dzhambov, Angel M., and Peter Lercher. 2019. "Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Depression/Anxiety: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 21: 4134. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214134

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