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Open AccessCommentary

Public Health Risks Associated with Heavy Metal and Microbial Contamination of Drinking Water in Australia

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Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, Australian Institute for Innovative Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2500, New South Wales, Australia
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College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia
3
Enware Australia Pty Ltd, 11 Endeavour Rd, Caringbah 2229, New South Wales, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3982; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203982
Received: 13 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
Recently in Australia concerns have been raised regarding the contamination of municipal drinking water supplies with lead. This is of particular concern to children due to the impact of lead exposure on cognitive development and as such these findings have received much media attention. The response from legislators has been swift, and The Victorian School Building Authority has announced that all new schools and school upgrade works will only use lead-free tapware and piping systems. However, while the immediate replacement of lead-containing brass fittings may seem a logical and obvious response, it does not consider the potential implications on microbial contamination. This is particularly concerning given the increasing public health threat posed by opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs). This commentary explores this public health risk of lead exposure from plumbing materials compared to the potential public health risks from OPPPs. Non-tuberculous mycobacterium was chosen as the example OPPP, and the influence on plumbing material and its public health burden in Australia is explored. This commentary highlights the need for future research into the influence of plumbing material on OPPPs prior to any changes in legislation regarding plumbing material. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; brass; stainless steel; opportunistic pathogens; Legionella spp.; non-tuberculous mycobacterium; Pseudomonas spp.; plumbing material; policy lead; brass; stainless steel; opportunistic pathogens; Legionella spp.; non-tuberculous mycobacterium; Pseudomonas spp.; plumbing material; policy
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Molino, P.J.; Bentham, R.; Higgins, M.J.; Hinds, J.; Whiley, H. Public Health Risks Associated with Heavy Metal and Microbial Contamination of Drinking Water in Australia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3982.

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