Next Article in Journal
External Workload Indicators of Muscle and Kidney Mechanical Injury in Endurance Trail Running
Next Article in Special Issue
Spatial and Vertical Variations and Heavy Metal Enrichments in Irrigated Soils of the Syr Darya River Watershed, Aral Sea Basin, Kazakhstan
Previous Article in Journal
Association of Perceived Built Environment Attributes with Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Ambulatory Patients with Stroke
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatial Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements in Surface Soils of Bosten Lake Basin, Central Asia
Open AccessArticle

Water Quality of the Mun River in Thailand—Spatiotemporal Variations and Potential Causes

College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Environmental Engineering and Disaster Management Program, School of Interdisciplinary Studies, Mahidol University Kanchanaburi Campus, Kanchanaburi 71150, Thailand
Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahasarakham University, Kantarawichai District, Maha Sarakham 44150, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3906;
Received: 14 September 2019 / Revised: 12 October 2019 / Accepted: 12 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Environmental Risk Assessment)
The water quality of the Mun River, one of the largest tributaries of the Mekong River and an important agricultural area in Thailand, is investigated to determine its status, identify spatiotemporal variations and distinguish the potential causes. Water quality dataset based on monitoring in the last two decades (1997–2017) from 21 monitoring sites distributed across the basin were analyzed using seasonal Kendall test and water quality index (WQI) method. The Kendall test shows significant declines in fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) and ammonia (NH3) in the upper reaches and increases in nitrate (NO3) and NH3 in the lower reaches. Strong temporal and spatial fluctuations were observed in both the concentrations of individual parameters and the WQI values. Seasonal variation of water quality was observed at each monitoring site. WQI values in August (flood season) were generally among the lowest, compared to other seasons. Spatially, sites in the upper reaches generally having lower WQI values than those in the lower reaches. Excessive phosphorus is the primary cause of water quality degradation in the upper reaches, while nitrogen is the primary parameter for water quality degradation in the lower reaches. Urban built-up land is an important “source” of water pollutants in the lower basin, while agricultural land plays a dual role, affecting across the basin. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; spatiotemporal variation; WQI; phosphorus; Mun River basin water quality; spatiotemporal variation; WQI; phosphorus; Mun River basin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Tian, H.; Yu, G.-A.; Tong, L.; Li, R.; Huang, H.Q.; Bridhikitti, A.; Prabamroong, T. Water Quality of the Mun River in Thailand—Spatiotemporal Variations and Potential Causes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3906.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop