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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 182;

Relative Deprivation, Poverty, and Mortality in Japanese Older Adults: A Six-Year Follow-Up of the JAGES Cohort Survey

Faculty of Social Welfare, Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi 470-3295, Japan
Center for Well-being and Society, Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi 460-0012, Japan
Department of Health Education and Health Sociology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo 186-8603, Japan
Cancer Control Center, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Chuo-ku 541-8567, Osaka, Japan
Center for Preventive Medicines, Chiba University, Chiba 260-0856, Japan
Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
The institute of Japan Agency for Gerontological Evaluation Study, Tokyo 110-0001, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 5 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
PDF [273 KB, uploaded 10 January 2019]


Most studies have evaluated poverty in terms of income status, but this approach cannot capture the diverse and complex aspects of poverty. To develop commodity-based relative deprivation indicators and evaluate their associations with mortality, we conducted a 6-year follow-up of participants in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), a population-based cohort of Japanese adults aged 65 and older. We analyzed mortality for 7614 respondents from 2010 to 2016. Cox regression models with multiple imputation were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality. Seven indicators were significantly associated with mortality: no refrigerator, no air conditioner, cut-off of essential services in the past year for economic reasons, and so on. Among participants, 12.0% met one item, and 3.3% met two items or more. The HRs after adjusting for relative poverty and some confounders were 1.71 (95%CI: 1.18–2.48) for relative deprivation, and 1.87 (95%CI: 1.14–3.09) for a combination of relative poverty and deprivation. Relative deprivation was attributable to around 27,000 premature deaths (2.3%) annually for the older Japanese. Measurement of relative deprivation among older adults might be worthwhile in public health as an important factor to address for healthy aging. View Full-Text
Keywords: relative deprivation; material poverty; relative poverty; mortality; older people relative deprivation; material poverty; relative poverty; mortality; older people
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Saito, M.; Kondo, N.; Oshio, T.; Tabuchi, T.; Kondo, K. Relative Deprivation, Poverty, and Mortality in Japanese Older Adults: A Six-Year Follow-Up of the JAGES Cohort Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 182.

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