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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020175

Relationships between Vitamin D3 and Metabolic Syndrome

1
Department of Clinical Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 70-204 Szczecin, Poland
2
Department of Nursing, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 70-204 Szczecin, Poland
3
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 70-204 Szczecin, Poland
4
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 70-204 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
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Abstract

The growing number of overweight and obese individuals is an alarming global problem; these conditions are risk factors for the development of health problems such as metabolic syndrome (MetS), type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have suggested that vitamin D3 deficiency plays a role in the pathogenesis of MetS. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between MetS and vitamin D3 levels in women. Laboratory analysis demonstrated that only 26.89% of the participants had vitamin D3 levels close to normal, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) measurements revealed android obesity in 75.63% of the women. The menstruating women more often suffered from vitamin D3 deficiency, and less often had elevated vitamin D3 levels. The conclusions are as follows: (1) There were no statistically significant relationships between vitamin D3 levels and MetS parameters, namely the level of triglycerides, the levels of low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL), the level of total cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Vitamin D deficiency was only observed in the women with abdominal obesity. (2) Low vitamin D3 levels were typical of perimenopausal women. Age was a variable correlating with vitamin D. (3) The presence of menstrual cycles was an important contributor to vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly more common in the menstruating women. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; vitamin D3; women metabolic syndrome; vitamin D3; women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wieder-Huszla, S.; Jurczak, A.; Szkup, M.; Barczak, K.; Dołęgowska, B.; Schneider-Matyka, D.; Owsianowska, J.; Grochans, E. Relationships between Vitamin D3 and Metabolic Syndrome. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 175.

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